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Article

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Motor Imagery Combined with Virtual Reality Techniques in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

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University Institute of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Lahore, Lahore 42000, Pakistan
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Riphah College of Rehabilitation and Allied Health Sciences, Riphah International University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
3
Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran 1985713871, Iran
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Edward J. Modestino
J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12(3), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030450
Received: 11 February 2022 / Revised: 6 March 2022 / Accepted: 9 March 2022 / Published: 12 March 2022
Background: Parkinson’s disease is the second most common neurological disease, affecting balance, motor function, and activities of daily living. Virtual reality and motor imagery are two emerging approaches for the rehabilitation of patients with Parkinson’s disease. This study aimed to determine the combined effects of virtual reality and motor imagery techniques with routine physical therapy on the motor function components of individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Methods: The study was a prospective, two-arm, parallel-design randomized controlled trial. Forty-four patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Virtual reality and motor imagery were given together with physical therapy in the experimental group (N: 20), while physical therapy treatment alone was given in the control group (N: 21). Both groups received allocated treatment for 12 weeks, 3 days a week, on alternate days. Motor function was assessed at baseline, six weeks, twelve weeks, and sixteen weeks after discontinuing treatment with the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III. SPSS 24 was used to analyze the data. Results: Study results indicate that the experimental group showed significant improvements in the motor function components: tremor at rest at the 6th week (p = 0.028), 12th week (p = 0.05), and 16th week (p = 0.001), rigidity at the 6th week (p = 0.03), 12th week (p = 0.000), and 16th week (p = 0.001), posture at the 12th week (p = 0.005) and 16th week (p = 0.004), and gait at the 6th week with a p-value of (p = 0.034). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that virtual reality and motor imagery training in combination with routine physical therapy can significantly improve resting tremors, rigidity, posture, gait, and body bradykinesia in individuals with PD in comparison to patients receiving only routine physical therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual reality; motor imagery; motor function; motor skills; Parkinson’s disease; physical therapy virtual reality; motor imagery; motor function; motor skills; Parkinson’s disease; physical therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kashif, M.; Ahmad, A.; Bandpei, M.A.M.; Syed, H.A.; Raza, A.; Sana, V. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Motor Imagery Combined with Virtual Reality Techniques in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. J. Pers. Med. 2022, 12, 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030450

AMA Style

Kashif M, Ahmad A, Bandpei MAM, Syed HA, Raza A, Sana V. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Motor Imagery Combined with Virtual Reality Techniques in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2022; 12(3):450. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030450

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kashif, Muhammad, Ashfaq Ahmad, Muhammad A.M. Bandpei, Hafiza A. Syed, Ali Raza, and Vishal Sana. 2022. "A Randomized Controlled Trial of Motor Imagery Combined with Virtual Reality Techniques in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease" Journal of Personalized Medicine 12, no. 3: 450. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm12030450

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