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Article

The Optimization and Biological Significance of a 29-Host-Immune-mRNA Panel for the Diagnosis of Acute Infections and Sepsis

Inflammatix, Inc., 863 Mitten Rd, Suite 104, Burlingame, CA 94010, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ippokratis Messaritakis
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(8), 735; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080735
Received: 2 June 2021 / Revised: 22 July 2021 / Accepted: 26 July 2021 / Published: 28 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine for Immunology and Immunogenetics)
In response to the unmet need for timely accurate diagnosis and prognosis of acute infections and sepsis, host-immune-response-based tests are being developed to help clinicians make more informed decisions including prescribing antimicrobials, ordering additional diagnostics, and assigning level of care. One such test (InSep™, Inflammatix, Inc.) uses a 29-mRNA panel to determine the likelihood of bacterial infection, the separate likelihood of viral infection, and the risk of physiologic decompensation (severity of illness). The test, being implemented in a rapid point-of-care platform with a turnaround time of 30 min, enables accurate and rapid diagnostic use at the point of impact. In this report, we provide details on how the 29-biomarker signature was chosen and optimized, together with its molecular, immunological, and medical significance to better understand the pathophysiological relevance of altered gene expression in disease. We synthesize key results obtained from gene-level functional annotations, geneset-level enrichment analysis, pathway-level analysis, and gene-network-level upstream regulator analysis. Emerging findings are summarized as hallmarks on immune cell interaction, inflammatory mediators, cellular metabolism and homeostasis, immune receptors, intracellular signaling and antiviral response; and converging themes on neutrophil degranulation and activation involved in immune response, interferon, and other signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; diagnosis; prognosis; acute infections; sepsis; bacterial; viral; host response; immune response; interferon; neutrophil biomarkers; diagnosis; prognosis; acute infections; sepsis; bacterial; viral; host response; immune response; interferon; neutrophil
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MDPI and ACS Style

He, Y.D.; Wohlford, E.M.; Uhle, F.; Buturovic, L.; Liesenfeld, O.; Sweeney, T.E. The Optimization and Biological Significance of a 29-Host-Immune-mRNA Panel for the Diagnosis of Acute Infections and Sepsis. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 735. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080735

AMA Style

He YD, Wohlford EM, Uhle F, Buturovic L, Liesenfeld O, Sweeney TE. The Optimization and Biological Significance of a 29-Host-Immune-mRNA Panel for the Diagnosis of Acute Infections and Sepsis. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(8):735. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080735

Chicago/Turabian Style

He, Yudong D., Eric M. Wohlford, Florian Uhle, Ljubomir Buturovic, Oliver Liesenfeld, and Timothy E. Sweeney. 2021. "The Optimization and Biological Significance of a 29-Host-Immune-mRNA Panel for the Diagnosis of Acute Infections and Sepsis" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 8: 735. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11080735

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