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Article

Dynamic Collaborations for the Development of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Agents

1
Graduate School of Technology Management, Ritsumeikan University, Osaka 567-8570, Japan
2
Faculty of Business Administration, Ritsumeikan University, Osaka 567-8570, Japan
3
School of Environment and Society, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 108-0023, Japan
4
Center for Research and Education on Drug Discovery, The Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences in Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anne-Marie Caminade
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(6), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060460
Received: 28 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 18 May 2021 / Published: 24 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Personalized and Precision Medicine 2021)
We studied the overview of drug discovery and development to understand the recent trends and potential success factors of interorganizational collaboration by reviewing 1204 transactions performed until 2019 for 107 anticancer drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) from 1999 to 2018. Immune checkpoint blockade was found to be a significantly active area in interorganizational transactions, especially the number of alliances, compared with other mechanisms of action of small molecules and biologics for cancer treatment. Furthermore, the analysis of pembrolizumab and nivolumab showed that the number of approved indications for these two drugs has been rapidly expanding since their first approval in 2014. Examination of the acquisitions and alliances regarding pembrolizumab and nivolumab showed that many combination partners were developed by US-based biotechnology or start-up companies, the majority of which were biologics. These findings suggest that immune checkpoint blockade is a paradigm for cancer treatment, resulting in huge product sales and continuous indication expansion. Additionally, interorganizational collaboration, especially trial collaboration, is a strategic approach for the development of immune checkpoint blockade agents. The translation of these empirical practices to new drug candidates is expected for the research and development of innovative drugs in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer treatment; immune checkpoint blockade; PD-(L)1 inhibitors; interorganizational transaction; combination therapy cancer treatment; immune checkpoint blockade; PD-(L)1 inhibitors; interorganizational transaction; combination therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Djurian, A.; Makino, T.; Lim, Y.; Sengoku, S.; Kodama, K. Dynamic Collaborations for the Development of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Agents. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060460

AMA Style

Djurian A, Makino T, Lim Y, Sengoku S, Kodama K. Dynamic Collaborations for the Development of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Agents. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(6):460. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060460

Chicago/Turabian Style

Djurian, Arisa, Tomohiro Makino, Yeongjoo Lim, Shintaro Sengoku, and Kota Kodama. 2021. "Dynamic Collaborations for the Development of Immune Checkpoint Blockade Agents" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 6: 460. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11060460

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