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Review

Mitochondria May Mediate Prenatal Environmental Influences in Autism Spectrum Disorder

1
Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ 85016, USA
2
Department of Applied Ecology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3
Department of Pediatrics, Arkansas Children’s Research Institute, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72202, USA
4
Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
5
Department of Environmental Medicine and Public Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido Krenning
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(3), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030218
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 17 March 2021 / Accepted: 17 March 2021 / Published: 18 March 2021
We propose that the mitochondrion, an essential cellular organelle, mediates the long-term prenatal environmental effects of disease in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Many prenatal environmental factors which increase the risk of developing ASD influence mitochondria physiology, including toxicant exposures, immune activation, and nutritional factors. Unique types of mitochondrial dysfunction have been associated with ASD and recent studies have linked prenatal environmental exposures to long-term changes in mitochondrial physiology in children with ASD. A better understanding of the role of the mitochondria in the etiology of ASD can lead to targeted therapeutics and strategies to potentially prevent the development of ASD. View Full-Text
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; mitochondria; oxidative stress; prenatal environment; immune dysfunction autism spectrum disorder; mitochondria; oxidative stress; prenatal environment; immune dysfunction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frye, R.E.; Cakir, J.; Rose, S.; Palmer, R.F.; Austin, C.; Curtin, P.; Arora, M. Mitochondria May Mediate Prenatal Environmental Influences in Autism Spectrum Disorder. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030218

AMA Style

Frye RE, Cakir J, Rose S, Palmer RF, Austin C, Curtin P, Arora M. Mitochondria May Mediate Prenatal Environmental Influences in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(3):218. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030218

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frye, Richard E., Janet Cakir, Shannon Rose, Raymond F. Palmer, Christine Austin, Paul Curtin, and Manish Arora. 2021. "Mitochondria May Mediate Prenatal Environmental Influences in Autism Spectrum Disorder" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 3: 218. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11030218

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