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Review

Epigenetic Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Stem Cell Aging and Rejuvenation

1
Federal Research and Clinical Center of Specialized Medical Care and Medical Technologies, FMBA of Russia, 115682 Moscow, Russia
2
Neurology Department, Astrakhan State Medical Academy, 414000 Astrakhan, Russia
3
Academy of Postgraduate Education of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center for Specialized Types of Medical Care and Medical Technologies, FMBA of Russia, 125371 Moscow, Russia
4
Tianjin’s Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin 300060, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Drenka Trivanovic
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(11), 1050; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111050
Received: 9 September 2021 / Revised: 12 October 2021 / Accepted: 14 October 2021 / Published: 20 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adult Stem Cells in Aging)
This review summarizes the current understanding of the interaction between circadian rhythms of gene expression and epigenetic clocks characterized by the specific profile of DNA methylation in CpG-islands which mirror the senescence of all somatic cells and stem cells in particular. Basic mechanisms of regulation for circadian genes CLOCK-BMAL1 as well as downstream clock-controlled genes (ССG) are also discussed here. It has been shown that circadian rhythms operate by the finely tuned regulation of transcription and rely on various epigenetic mechanisms including the activation of enhancers/suppressors, acetylation/deacetylation of histones and other proteins as well as DNA methylation. Overall, up to 20% of all genes expressed by the cell are subject to expression oscillations associated with circadian rhythms. Additionally included in the review is a brief list of genes involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, along with genes important for cell aging, and oncogenesis. Eliminating some of them (for example, Sirt1) accelerates the aging process, while the overexpression of Sirt1, on the contrary, protects against age-related changes. Circadian regulators control a number of genes that activate the cell cycle (Wee1, c-Myc, p20, p21, and Cyclin D1) and regulate histone modification and DNA methylation. Approaches for determining the epigenetic age from methylation profiles across CpG islands in individual cells are described. DNA methylation, which characterizes the function of the epigenetic clock, appears to link together such key biological processes as regeneration and functioning of stem cells, aging and malignant transformation. Finally, the main features of adult stem cell aging in stem cell niches and current possibilities for modulating the epigenetic clock and stem cells rejuvenation as part of antiaging therapy are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: circadian clock; epigenetic clock; aging; senescence; reprogramming; methylome; DNA methylation; CpG-islands; induced pluripotent stem cells circadian clock; epigenetic clock; aging; senescence; reprogramming; methylome; DNA methylation; CpG-islands; induced pluripotent stem cells
MDPI and ACS Style

Samoilova, E.M.; Belopasov, V.V.; Ekusheva, E.V.; Zhang, C.; Troitskiy, A.V.; Baklaushev, V.P. Epigenetic Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Stem Cell Aging and Rejuvenation. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111050

AMA Style

Samoilova EM, Belopasov VV, Ekusheva EV, Zhang C, Troitskiy AV, Baklaushev VP. Epigenetic Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Stem Cell Aging and Rejuvenation. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(11):1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111050

Chicago/Turabian Style

Samoilova, Ekaterina M., Vladimir V. Belopasov, Evgenia V. Ekusheva, Chao Zhang, Alexander V. Troitskiy, and Vladimir P. Baklaushev 2021. "Epigenetic Clock and Circadian Rhythms in Stem Cell Aging and Rejuvenation" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 11: 1050. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11111050

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