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Review

The Role of Gamma Oscillations in the Pathophysiology of Substance Use Disorders

1
Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Division of Mood and Anxiety, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, ON M6J1H4, Canada
2
Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S1A8, Canada
3
Department of Psychiatry, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S1A8, Canada
4
Multidisciplinary Translational Research Lab, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010017
Received: 10 November 2020 / Revised: 21 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 28 December 2020
Substance use disorders (SUDs) are a major public health problem—with over 200 million people reporting drug use in 2016. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful tool that can provide insights into the impact of SUDs on cognition. Specifically, modulated gamma activity may provide an index of the pathophysiology of SUDs. Thus, the purpose of this review was to investigate the impact of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and amphetamine on gamma activity, among pre-clinical and clinical populations during acute and chronic exposure and withdrawal states. We searched multiple databases for key terms related to SUDs, EEG, and gamma and ensured rigorous methods by using a standardized review reporting tool. We included 30 studies in this review and found that all substances were associated with modulation of gamma activity, across states and in both preclinical and clinical populations. Gamma oscillations appeared to be differentially modulated in clinical versus preclinical populations and had the most complex relationship with alcohol, indicating that it may act differently than other substances. The findings of this review offer insights into the pathophysiology of SUDs, providing a potential window into novel treatments for SUDs via modulation of gamma activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: gamma oscillations; alcohol; tobacco; cannabis; cognition; co-morbidity gamma oscillations; alcohol; tobacco; cannabis; cognition; co-morbidity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramlakhan, J.U.; Ma, M.; Zomorrodi, R.; Blumberger, D.M.; Noda, Y.; Barr, M.S. The Role of Gamma Oscillations in the Pathophysiology of Substance Use Disorders. J. Pers. Med. 2021, 11, 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010017

AMA Style

Ramlakhan JU, Ma M, Zomorrodi R, Blumberger DM, Noda Y, Barr MS. The Role of Gamma Oscillations in the Pathophysiology of Substance Use Disorders. Journal of Personalized Medicine. 2021; 11(1):17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010017

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramlakhan, Jessica U., Ming Ma, Reza Zomorrodi, Daniel M. Blumberger, Yoshihiro Noda, and Mera S. Barr. 2021. "The Role of Gamma Oscillations in the Pathophysiology of Substance Use Disorders" Journal of Personalized Medicine 11, no. 1: 17. https://doi.org/10.3390/jpm11010017

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