Advances in knowledge resulting from the sequencing of the human genome, coupled with technological developments and a deeper understanding of disease mechanisms of pathogenesis are paving the way for a growing role of precision medicine in the treatment of a number of human conditions. The goal of precision medicine is to identify and deliver effective therapeutic approaches based on patients’ genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. With the exception of cancer, neurological diseases provide the most promising opportunity to achieve treatment personalisation, mainly because of accelerated progress in gene discovery, deep clinical phenotyping, and biomarker availability. Developing reproducible, predictable and reliable disease models will be key to the rapid delivery of the anticipated benefits of precision medicine. Here we summarize the current state of the art of preclinical models for neuromuscular diseases, with particular focus on their use and limitations to predict safety and efficacy treatment outcomes in clinical trials.
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