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Open AccessReview

Glycan Analysis as Biomarkers for Testicular Cancer

Institute of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 38 Bratislava, Slovakia
Translational Research Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and National Cancer Institute, Klenova 1, 833 10 Bratislava, Slovakia
2nd Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University and National Cancer Institute, Klenova 1, 833 10 Bratislava, Slovakia
Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2019, 9(4), 156;
Received: 10 September 2019 / Revised: 13 October 2019 / Accepted: 19 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urogenital Cancers: Diagnostic, Predictive, and Prognostic Markers)
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force does not recommend routine screening for testicular cancer (TC) in asymptomatic men, essentially because serological testicular cancer (TC) biomarkers are not reliable. The main reason is that two of the most important TC biomarkers, α-fetoprotein (AFP) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), are not produced solely due to TC. Moreover, up to 40% of patients with TC do not have elevated serological biomarkers, which is why serial imaging with CT is the chief means of monitoring progress. On the other hand, exposure to radiation can lead to an increased risk of secondary malignancies. This review provides the first comprehensive account of the applicability of protein glycoprofiling as a promising biomarker for TC with applications in disease diagnostics, monitoring and recurrence evaluation. The review first deals with the description and classification of TC. Secondly, the limitations of current TC biomarkers such as hCG, AFP and lactate dehydrogenase are provided together with an extensive overview of the glycosylation of hCG and AFP related to TC. The final part of the review summarises the potential of glycan changes on either hCG and AFP as TC biomarkers for diagnostics and prognostics purposes, and for disease recurrence evaluation. Finally, an analysis of glycans in serum and tissues as TC biomarkers is also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: testicular cancer; glycosylation; lectins; glycans; biomarkers testicular cancer; glycosylation; lectins; glycans; biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hires, M.; Jane, E.; Mego, M.; Chovanec, M.; Kasak, P.; Tkac, J. Glycan Analysis as Biomarkers for Testicular Cancer. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 156.

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