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Open AccessReview

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review

1
Facultad de Medicina, Grupo de Investigación Neuros, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 110211, Colombia
2
INPAC Research Group, Fundación Universitaria Sanitas, Bogotá 110211, Colombia
3
Center for Research in Genetics and Genomics-CIGGUR, GENIUROS Research Group, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 110211, Colombia
4
Group de Investigación en Psiquiatría (GIPSI), Instituto de Investigaciones Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050002, Colombia
5
The National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, RSPH, College of Health and Medicine, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2019, 9(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9030091
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Insights that Inform the Diagnosis of ME/CFS)
Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating chronic disease of unknown aetiology that is recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) as a disorder of the brain. The disease predominantly affects adults, with a peak age of onset of between 20 and 45 years with a female to male ratio of 3:1. Although the clinical features of the disease have been well established within diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis of ME/CFS is still of exclusion, meaning that other medical conditions must be ruled out. The pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear but the neuro-immuno-endocrinological pattern of CFS patients gleaned from various studies indicates that these three pillars may be the key point to understand the complexity of the disease. At the moment, there are no specific pharmacological therapies to treat the disease, but several studies’ aims and therapeutic approaches have been described in order to benefit patients’ prognosis, symptomatology relief, and the recovery of pre-existing function. This review presents a pathophysiological approach to understanding the essential concepts of ME/CFS, with an emphasis on the population, clinical, and genetic concepts associated with ME/CFS. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunological; chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; biomarker; neuroimmune; Epstein Barr virus; hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis immunological; chronic fatigue syndrome; myalgic encephalomyelitis; biomarker; neuroimmune; Epstein Barr virus; hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis
MDPI and ACS Style

Cortes Rivera, M.; Mastronardi, C.; Silva-Aldana, C.T.; Arcos-Burgos, M.; Lidbury, B.A. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 91.

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