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Radio-Frequency and Microwave Techniques for Non-Invasive Measurement of Blood Glucose Levels

1
Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey
2
Department of Electronic, Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
3
School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2019, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9010006
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 8 January 2019
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Abstract

This paper reviews non-invasive blood glucose measurements via dielectric spectroscopy at microwave frequencies presented in the literature. The intent is to clarify the key challenges that must be overcome if this approach is to work, to suggest some possible ways towards addressing these challenges and to contribute towards prevention of unnecessary ‘reinvention of the wheel’. View Full-Text
Keywords: blood glucose levels; non-invasive measurement; glucose-dependent dielectric properties; RF sensing; microwave resonators; microwave spectroscopy; dielectric spectroscopy; on-body antennas blood glucose levels; non-invasive measurement; glucose-dependent dielectric properties; RF sensing; microwave resonators; microwave spectroscopy; dielectric spectroscopy; on-body antennas
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Yilmaz, T.; Foster, R.; Hao, Y. Radio-Frequency and Microwave Techniques for Non-Invasive Measurement of Blood Glucose Levels. Diagnostics 2019, 9, 6.

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