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Selenium and Selenoproteins in Immune Mediated Thyroid Disorders

by Liliana R. Santos 1,2,3, Celestino Neves 4,5, Miguel Melo 1,5,6,7 and Paula Soares 1,3,5,*
1
Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology of the University of Porto (IPATIMUP), 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
2
Serviço de Medicina 2B—Hospital de Santa Maria/Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, 1649-035 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
4
Endocrinology Service, Hospital Center São João, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
5
Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde (i3S), Universidade do Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
6
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, 3000-075 Coimbra, Portugal
7
Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3004-504 Coimbra, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2018, 8(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics8040070
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
Selenium is an essential micronutrient that is required for the synthesis of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins, processing a wide range of health effects. It is known that the thyroid is one of the tissues that contain more selenium. The “selenostasis” maintenance seems to contribute to the prevention of immune mediated thyroid disorders. Prospective, observational studies, randomized, controlled studies evaluating selenium supplementation, and review articles that are available in Medline and PubMed have undergone scrutiny. The differences concerning methodology and results variability have been analyzed. Several authors support the idea of a potential efficacy of selenium (mainly selenomethionine) supplementation in reducing antithyroperoxidase antibody levels and improve thyroid ultrasound features. In mild Graves’ orbitopathy, selenium supplementation has been associated with a decrease of the activity, as well as with quality of life improvement. Future research is necessary to clearly understand the selenium supplementation biologic effects while considering the basal selenium levels/biomarkers, selenoprotein gene polymorphisms that may be involved, underlying comorbidities and the major clinical outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: selenium; selenoproteins; essential trace element; supplements; autoimmune thyroid diseases; Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; Graves’ disease selenium; selenoproteins; essential trace element; supplements; autoimmune thyroid diseases; Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; Graves’ disease
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Santos, L.R.; Neves, C.; Melo, M.; Soares, P. Selenium and Selenoproteins in Immune Mediated Thyroid Disorders. Diagnostics 2018, 8, 70.

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