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Diagnostics 2017, 7(3), 53;

The Usefulness of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Assessment of Early Kidney Transplant Function and Complications

Kidney Transplant Unit, Department of Urology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Spain Alcalá University, IRYCIS, 28034 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional and Molecular Imaging of Kidney and Urogenital Disease)
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Objectives: The routine diagnostic method for assessment of renal graft dysfunction is Doppler ultrasound. However, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) may provide more information about parenchymal flow and vascular status of kidney allografts. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of CEUS in the immediate post-transplant period, focusing on acute vascular complications. A brief review of available literature and a report of our initial experience is made. Material and methods: 15 kidney transplant (KT) cases with clinical suspicion of acute surgical complication were assessed with CEUS and conventional Doppler ultrasound (US). In addition, bibliographic review was conducted through PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalKey databases. Results: 10% of KT underwent CEUS, useful for detecting vascular complication or cortical necrosis in 4 (26%) and exclude them in 74%. Grafts with acute vascular complications have a delayed contrast-enhancement with peak intensity lower than normal kidneys. Perfusion defects can be clearly observed and the imaging of cortical necrosis is pathognomonic. Conclusions: CEUS is a useful tool in the characterization of renal graft dysfunction with special interest on acute vascular complications after renal transplant. It is a feasible technique for quantitative analysis of kidney perfusion, which provides information on renal tissue microcirculation and regional parenchymal flow. Exploration could be done by a urologist at the patient’s bedside while avoiding iodinated contrast. View Full-Text
Keywords: CEUS; contrast enhaced ultrasound; kindey transplant; complications CEUS; contrast enhaced ultrasound; kindey transplant; complications

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Álvarez Rodríguez, S.; Hevia Palacios, V.; Sanz Mayayo, E.; Gómez Dos Santos, V.; Díez Nicolás, V.; Sánchez Gallego, M.D.; Lorca Álvaro, J.; Burgos Revilla, F.J. The Usefulness of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Assessment of Early Kidney Transplant Function and Complications. Diagnostics 2017, 7, 53.

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