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Diagnostics 2015, 5(3), 383-398;

Contrast Enhanced MRI in the Diagnosis of HCC

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware St SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Krishan Kumar
Received: 29 May 2015 / Revised: 22 August 2015 / Accepted: 28 August 2015 / Published: 21 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Medicine)
Full-Text   |   PDF [3513 KB, uploaded 23 September 2015]   |  


Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 6th most common cancer worldwide. Imaging plays a critical role in HCC screening and diagnosis. Initial screening of patients at risk for HCC is performed with ultrasound. Confirmation of HCC can then be obtained by Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), due to the relatively high specificity of both techniques. This article will focus on reviewing MRI techniques for imaging HCC, felt by many to be the exam of choice for HCC diagnosis. MRI relies heavily upon the use of gadolinium-based contrast agents and while primarily extracellular gadolinium-based contrast agents are used, there is an emerging role of hepatobiliary contrast agents in HCC imaging. The use of other non-contrast enhanced MRI techniques for assessing HCC will also be discussed and these MRI strategies will be reviewed in the context of the pathophysiology of HCC to help understand the MR imaging appearance of HCC. View Full-Text
Keywords: MRI; HCC; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Hepatocellular carcinoma; liver MRI; HCC; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Hepatocellular carcinoma; liver

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Niendorf, E.; Spilseth, B.; Wang, X.; Taylor, A. Contrast Enhanced MRI in the Diagnosis of HCC. Diagnostics 2015, 5, 383-398.

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