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Open AccessArticle

Mammographic Breast Density and Urbanization: Interactions with BMI, Environmental, Lifestyle, and Other Patient Factors

1
London Breast Institute, Princess Grace Hospital, London W1U 5NY, UK
2
Wolfson Institute, Queen Mary University of London, London EC1M 6BQ, UK
3
HCA Healthcare UK, London NW1 6JQ, UK
4
Scientia Clinical Research, Sydney, Australia and Prince of Wales Hospital Clinical School, UNSW, Sydney NSW 2031, Australia
5
Sarah Cannon Research Institute UK and University College London, London W1G 6AD, UK
6
Department of Radiology, Breast Imaging Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These Authors contributed equally to this work.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(6), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10060418
Received: 28 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 20 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multimodality Breast Imaging)
Mammographic breast density (MBD) is an important imaging biomarker of breast cancer risk, but it has been suggested that increased MBD is not a genuine finding once corrected for age and body mass index (BMI). This study examined the association of various factors, including both residing in and working in the urban setting, with MBD. Questionnaires were completed by 1144 women attending for mammography at the London Breast Institute in 2012–2013. Breast density was assessed with an automated volumetric breast density measurement system (Volpara) and compared with subjective radiologist assessment. Multivariable linear regression was used to model the relationship between MBD and residence in the urban setting as well as working in the urban setting, adjusting for both age and BMI and other menstrual, reproductive, and lifestyle factors. Urban residence was significantly associated with an increasing percent of MBD, but this association became non-significant when adjusted for age and BMI. This was not the case for women who were both residents in the urban setting and still working. Our results suggest that the association between urban women and increased MBD can be partially explained by their lower BMI, but for women still working, there appear to be other contributing factors. View Full-Text
Keywords: breast cancer risk; body mass index; breast density; mammography; urban breast cancer risk; body mass index; breast density; mammography; urban
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Perry, N.; Moss, S.; Dixon, S.; Milner, S.; Mokbel, K.; Lemech, C.; Arkenau, H.-T.; Duffy, S.; Pinker, K. Mammographic Breast Density and Urbanization: Interactions with BMI, Environmental, Lifestyle, and Other Patient Factors. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 418.

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