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Open AccessArticle

The Application of an Iterative Structure to the Delay-and-Sum and the Delay-Multiply-and-Sum Beamformers in Breast Microwave Imaging

1
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3T 2N2, Canada
2
Research Institute in Oncology and Hematology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0V9, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(6), 411; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10060411
Received: 17 April 2020 / Revised: 8 June 2020 / Accepted: 12 June 2020 / Published: 17 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Imaging)
Breast microwave imaging (BMI) is a potential breast cancer screening method. This manuscript presents a novel iterative delay-and-sum (DAS) based reconstruction algorithm for BMI. This iterative-DAS (itDAS) algorithm uses a forward radar model to iteratively update an image estimate. A variation of the itDAS reconstruction algorithm that uses the delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS) beamformer was also implemented (the itDMAS algorithm). Both algorithms were used to reconstruct images from experimental scans of an array of 3D-printed MRI-based breast phantoms performed with a clinical BMI system. The signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) and signal-to-mean ratio (SMR) were used to compare the performance of the itDAS and itDMAS methods to the DAS and DMAS beamformers. While no significant difference between the itDAS and itDMAS methods was observed in most images, the itDAS algorithm produced reconstructions that had significantly higher SMR than the non-iterative methods, increasing contrast by as much as 19 dB over DAS and 13 dB over DMAS. The itDAS algorithm also increased the SCR of reconstructions by up to 5 dB over DAS and 4 dB over DMAS, indicating that both high-intensity and background clutter are reduced in images reconstructed by the itDAS algorithm. View Full-Text
Keywords: microwave imaging; image reconstruction; breast imaging; microwave radar microwave imaging; image reconstruction; breast imaging; microwave radar
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Reimer, T.; Solis-Nepote, M.; Pistorius, S. The Application of an Iterative Structure to the Delay-and-Sum and the Delay-Multiply-and-Sum Beamformers in Breast Microwave Imaging. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 411.

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