Follicular lymphoma, the second most common non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), primarily affects adults and shows an indolent clinical course. Rare cases of follicular lymphoma transform to a high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC
rearrangements or “double-hit lymphoma”. Transformation to a “double-hit lymphoma” portends a worse prognosis and requires aggressive treatment. We report a comprehensive clinical, pathologic and radiographic review of a patient with previously undiagnosed low-grade follicular lymphoma that transformed into a “double-hit lymphoma”. The patient presented with a large heterogeneous mass 16 x 19 cm involving pancreatic head and neck and a mildly enlarged inguinal lymph node. Positron emission tomography (PET) study demonstrated Fluorodeoxyglucose (18
F) (FDG)-avid peripancreatic mass. Tissue biopsy demonstrated a high-grade B-cell lymphoma with rearrangements t(14;18) and MYC
, leading to the diagnosis of high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC
rearrangements. Excisional biopsy of an inguinal lymph node demonstrated low-grade follicular lymphoma. Clonality studies demonstrated the same immunoglobulin clone V7-4 in inguinal lymph node and peripancreatic mass. Therefore, diagnosis of a high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC
rearrangements that transformed from a low-grade follicular lymphoma was rendered. It is ultimately important to establish a tissue-based diagnosis at the different sites that are involved with lymphoma. Patient proceeded with the aggressive treatment with dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and rituximab (EPOCH-R) treatment.
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