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Article

Pericapillary Edema Assessment by Means of the Nailfold Capillaroscopy and Laser Scanning Microscopy

1
Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskie Gory 1/2, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2
Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Trubetskaya 8-2, 119991 Moscow, Russia
3
Medical Research and Education Center, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Lomonosovsky Prospect 27/10, 119991 Moscow, Russia
4
Division of Immune-Mediated Skin Diseases, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Trubetskaya 8-2, 119991 Moscow, Russia
5
Institute of Spectroscopy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Fizicheskaya Street, 5, Troitsk, 108840 Moscow, Russia
6
A.I. Yevdokimov Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Delegatskaya Street, 20, 127473 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(12), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121107
Received: 3 December 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Optical Diagnostics)
Edema, i.e., fluid accumulation in the interstitial space, accompanies numerous pathological states of the human organism, including heart failure (HF), inflammatory response, and lymphedema. Nevertheless, techniques for quantitative assessment of the edema’s severity and dynamics are absent in clinical practice, and the analysis is mainly limited to physical examination. This fact stimulates the development of novel methods for fast and reliable diagnostics of fluid retention in tissues. In this work, we focused on the possibilities of two microscopic techniques, nailfold video capillaroscopy (NVC) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), in the assessment of the short-term and long-term cutaneous edema. We showed that for the patients with HF, morphological parameters obtained by NVC—namely, the apical diameter of capillaries and the size of the perivascular zone—indicate long-term edema. On the other hand, for healthy volunteers, the application of two models of short-term edema, venous occlusion, and histamine treatment of the skin, did not reveal notable changes in the capillary parameters. However, a significant reduction of the NVC image sharpness was observed in this case, which was suggested to be due to water accumulation in the epidermis. To verify these findings, we made use of CLSM, which provides the skin structure with cellular resolution. It was observed that for the histamine-treated skin, the areas of the dermal papillae become hyporefractive, leading to the loss of contrast and the lower visibility of capillaries. Similar effect was observed for patients undergoing infusion therapy. Collectively, our results reveal the parameters can be used for pericapillary edema assessment using the NVC and CLSM, and paves the way for their application in a clinical set-up. View Full-Text
Keywords: edema; nailfold capillaroscopy; perivascular area; laser scanning microscopy; papillary dermis; fluid accumulation; hyporefractivity; image sharpness assessment edema; nailfold capillaroscopy; perivascular area; laser scanning microscopy; papillary dermis; fluid accumulation; hyporefractivity; image sharpness assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yakimov, B.P.; Gurfinkel, Y.I.; Davydov, D.A.; Allenova, A.S.; Budylin, G.S.; Vasiliev, V.Y.; Soldatova, V.Y.; Kamalov, A.A.; Matskeplishvili, S.T.; Priezzhev, A.V.; Shirshin, E.A. Pericapillary Edema Assessment by Means of the Nailfold Capillaroscopy and Laser Scanning Microscopy. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 1107. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121107

AMA Style

Yakimov BP, Gurfinkel YI, Davydov DA, Allenova AS, Budylin GS, Vasiliev VY, Soldatova VY, Kamalov AA, Matskeplishvili ST, Priezzhev AV, Shirshin EA. Pericapillary Edema Assessment by Means of the Nailfold Capillaroscopy and Laser Scanning Microscopy. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(12):1107. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121107

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yakimov, Boris P., Yury I. Gurfinkel, Denis A. Davydov, Anastasia S. Allenova, Gleb S. Budylin, Vladimir Y. Vasiliev, Vera Y. Soldatova, Armais A. Kamalov, Simon T. Matskeplishvili, Alexander V. Priezzhev, and Evgeny A. Shirshin. 2020. "Pericapillary Edema Assessment by Means of the Nailfold Capillaroscopy and Laser Scanning Microscopy" Diagnostics 10, no. 12: 1107. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10121107

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