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Open AccessArticle

A Pilot Study of the Reliability and Agreement of Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Elite Modern Pentathlon Athletes

1
Physiotherapy Division, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
2
Biodynamics and Human Performance Center, Department of Health Sciences and Kinesiology, Georgia Southern University (Armstrong Campus), Savannah, GA 31419, USA
3
Department of Internal Medicine of Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14049-900, SP, Brazil
4
Faculty of Mechatronics, Institute of Metrology and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 02-525 Warsaw, Poland
5
Department of Heart Rhythm Disorders, National Institute of Cardiology, 04-628 Warsaw, Poland
6
Medical Faculty, Lazarski University in Warsaw, 02-662 Warsaw, Poland
7
Department of Pediatric Cardiology and General Pediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-091 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Diagnostics 2020, 10(10), 833; https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100833
Received: 28 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 14 October 2020 / Published: 16 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic Challenges in Sports Cardiology)
Research on reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in athletes has received increasing attention. The aims of this study were to examine the inter-day reliability of short-term (5 min) and ultra-short-term (1 min) heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RespRate) and HRV parameters, agreement between short-term and ultra-short-term parameters, and association between differences in HR, RespRate and HRV parameters in elite modern pentathletes. Electrocardiographic recordings were performed in stable measurement conditions with a week interval between tests. Relative reliability was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficients, absolute reliability was evaluated by within-subject coefficient of variation, and agreement was evaluated using Bland–Altman (BA) plot with limits of agreement and defined a priori maximum acceptable difference. Short-term HR, RespRate, log transformed (ln) root mean square of successive normal-to-normal interval differences (lnRMSSD), ln high frequency (lnHF) and SD2/SD1 HRV indices and ultra-short-term HR, RespRate and lnRMSSD presented acceptable, satisfactory inter-day reliability. Although there were no significant differences between short-term and ultra-short-term HR, RespRate and lnRMSSD, no parameter showed acceptable differences with BA plots. Differences in time-domain and non-linear HRV parameters were more correlated with differences in HR than with differences in RespRate. Inverse results were observed for frequency-domain parameters. Short-term HR, RespRate, lnRMSSD, lnHF, and SD2/SD1 and ultra-short-term HR, RespRate and lnRMSSD could be used as reliable parameters in endurance athletes. However, practitioners should interpret changes in HRV parameters with regard to concomitant differences in HR and RespRate and caution should be taken before considering 5 min and 1 min parameters as interchangeable. View Full-Text
Keywords: heart rate; respiratory rate; heart rate variability; reliability; repeatability; modern penthatlon; athletes heart rate; respiratory rate; heart rate variability; reliability; repeatability; modern penthatlon; athletes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hoffmann, B.; Flatt, A.A.; Silva, L.E.V.; Młyńczak, M.; Baranowski, R.; Dziedzic, E.; Werner, B.; Gąsior, J.S. A Pilot Study of the Reliability and Agreement of Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Elite Modern Pentathlon Athletes. Diagnostics 2020, 10, 833. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100833

AMA Style

Hoffmann B, Flatt AA, Silva LEV, Młyńczak M, Baranowski R, Dziedzic E, Werner B, Gąsior JS. A Pilot Study of the Reliability and Agreement of Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Elite Modern Pentathlon Athletes. Diagnostics. 2020; 10(10):833. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100833

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hoffmann, Bartosz; Flatt, Andrew A.; Silva, Luiz E.V.; Młyńczak, Marcel; Baranowski, Rafał; Dziedzic, Ewelina; Werner, Bożena; Gąsior, Jakub S. 2020. "A Pilot Study of the Reliability and Agreement of Heart Rate, Respiratory Rate and Short-Term Heart Rate Variability in Elite Modern Pentathlon Athletes" Diagnostics 10, no. 10: 833. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10100833

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