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State-of-the-Art Genetic Modalities to Engineer Cyanobacteria for Sustainable Biosynthesis of Biofuel and Fine-Chemicals to Meet Bio–Economy Challenges

1
State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China
3
Bio-X Institute, Key Laboratory for the Genetics of Developmental and Neuropsychiatric Disorders (Ministry of Education), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China
4
Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Queretaro, Epigmenio Gonzalez 500, Queretaro CP 76130, Mexico
5
Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Campus Monterrey, Ave. Eugenio Garza Sada 2501, Monterrey CP 64849, N.L., Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 April 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 27 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Life Sciences)
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Abstract

In recent years, metabolic engineering of microorganisms has attained much research interest to produce biofuels and industrially pertinent chemicals. Owing to the relatively fast growth rate, genetic malleability, and carbon neutral production process, cyanobacteria has been recognized as a specialized microorganism with a significant biotechnological perspective. Metabolically engineering cyanobacterial strains have shown great potential for the photosynthetic production of an array of valuable native or non-native chemicals and metabolites with profound agricultural and pharmaceutical significance using CO2 as a building block. In recent years, substantial improvements in developing and introducing novel and efficient genetic tools such as genome-scale modeling, high throughput omics analyses, synthetic/system biology tools, metabolic flux analysis and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated nuclease (CRISPR/cas) systems have been made for engineering cyanobacterial strains. Use of these tools and technologies has led to a greater understanding of the host metabolism, as well as endogenous and heterologous carbon regulation mechanisms which consequently results in the expansion of maximum productive ability and biochemical diversity. This review summarizes recent advances in engineering cyanobacteria to produce biofuel and industrially relevant fine chemicals of high interest. Moreover, the development and applications of cutting-edge toolboxes such as the CRISPR-cas9 system, synthetic biology, high-throughput “omics”, and metabolic flux analysis to engineer cyanobacteria for large-scale cultivation are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; metabolic engineering; commodity chemicals; genome-scale modeling; metabolic flux analysis; CRISPR/cas system cyanobacteria; metabolic engineering; commodity chemicals; genome-scale modeling; metabolic flux analysis; CRISPR/cas system
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Khan, A.Z.; Bilal, M.; Mehmood, S.; Sharma, A.; Iqbal, H.M.N. State-of-the-Art Genetic Modalities to Engineer Cyanobacteria for Sustainable Biosynthesis of Biofuel and Fine-Chemicals to Meet Bio–Economy Challenges. Life 2019, 9, 54.

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