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Long-Term Changes in Cyanobacteria Populations in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel: An Eco-Physiological Outlook

by 1,*,†, 2,† and 3,†
1
The Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Migdal, Israel
2
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel
3
The Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnological Laboratory, Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research, Migdal, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: John C. Meeks and Robert Haselkorn
Life 2015, 5(1), 418-431; https://doi.org/10.3390/life5010418
Received: 19 November 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 29 January 2015 / Published: 5 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyanobacteria: Ecology, Physiology and Genetics)
The long-term record of cyanobacteria abundance in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel, demonstrates changes in cyanobacteria abundance and composition in the last five decades. New invasive species of the order Nostocales (Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii) became part of the annual phytoplankton assemblage during summer-autumn. Concomitantly, bloom events of Microcystis sp. (Chroococcales) during winter-spring intensified. These changes in cyanobacteria pattern may be partly attributed to the management policy in Lake Kinneret’s vicinity and watershed aimed to reduce effluent discharge to the lake and partly to climate changes in the region; i.e., increased water column temperature, less wind and reduced precipitation. The gradual decrease in the concentration of total and dissolved phosphorus and total and dissolved nitrogen and an increase in alkalinity, pH and salinity, combined with the physiological features of cyanobacteria, probably contributed to the success of cyanobacteria. The data presented here indicate that the trend of the continuous decline of nutrients may not be sufficient to reduce and to control the abundance and proliferation of toxic and non-toxic cyanobacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lake Kinneret; phytoplankton shift; cyanobacteria; nutrients; management Lake Kinneret; phytoplankton shift; cyanobacteria; nutrients; management
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Hadas, O.; Kaplan, A.; Sukenik, A. Long-Term Changes in Cyanobacteria Populations in Lake Kinneret (Sea of Galilee), Israel: An Eco-Physiological Outlook. Life 2015, 5, 418-431.

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