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Article

High Levels of TNF-α and TIM-3 as a Biomarker of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in People with HIV Infection

1
Laboratory of Integrative Immunology, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias “Ismael Cosío Villegas”, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
2
Flow Cytometry Core Facility, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias “Ismael Cosío Villegas”, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
3
Center for Infectious Diseases Research (CIENI), Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias “Ismael Cosío Villegas”, Mexico City 14080, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Marco Iannetta, Maria Antonella Zingaropoli, Vincenzo Malagnino and Serena Vita
Life 2021, 11(6), 527; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11060527
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 23 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Immunology of Infectious Diseases)
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exacerbated immune response that can occur to HIV+ patients after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). IRIS pathogenesis is unclear, but dysfunctional and exhausted cells have been reported in IRIS patients, and the TIM-3/Gal-9 axis has been associated with chronic phases of viral infection. This study aimed to evaluate the soluble levels of TIM-3 and Gal-9 and their relationship with IRIS development. TIM-3, Gal-9, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, TNFR1, TNFR2, E-cadherin, ADAM10, and ADAM17 were measured to search for IRIS-associated biomarkers in plasma samples from 0-, 4-, 8-, 12-, and 24-weeks after ART initiation of 61 HIV+ patients (15 patients developed IRIS, and 46 did not). We found that patients who developed IRIS had higher levels of TIM-3 [median 4806, IQR: 3206–6182] at the time of the IRIS events, compared to any other follow-up time evaluated in these patients or compared with a control group of patients who did not develop IRIS. Similarly, IRIS patients had a higher TNF-α level [median 10.89, IQR: 8.36–12.34] at IRIS events than any other follow-up time evaluated. Other molecules related to the TIM-3 and TNF-α pathway (Gal-9, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNFR1, TNFR2, ADAM-10, and ADAM-17) did not change during the IRIS events. In conclusion, our data suggest that a high level of soluble TIM-3 and TNF-α could be used as an IRIS biomarker. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; IRIS; TNF-α; ADAM; TIM-3 HIV; IRIS; TNF-α; ADAM; TIM-3
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramon-Luing, L.A.; Ocaña-Guzman, R.; Téllez-Navarrete, N.A.; Preciado-García, M.; Romero-Rodríguez, D.P.; Espinosa, E.; Reyes-Terán, G.; Chavez-Galan, L. High Levels of TNF-α and TIM-3 as a Biomarker of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in People with HIV Infection. Life 2021, 11, 527. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11060527

AMA Style

Ramon-Luing LA, Ocaña-Guzman R, Téllez-Navarrete NA, Preciado-García M, Romero-Rodríguez DP, Espinosa E, Reyes-Terán G, Chavez-Galan L. High Levels of TNF-α and TIM-3 as a Biomarker of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in People with HIV Infection. Life. 2021; 11(6):527. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11060527

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramon-Luing, Lucero A., Ranferi Ocaña-Guzman, Norma A. Téllez-Navarrete, Mario Preciado-García, Dámaris P. Romero-Rodríguez, Enrique Espinosa, Gustavo Reyes-Terán, and Leslie Chavez-Galan. 2021. "High Levels of TNF-α and TIM-3 as a Biomarker of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in People with HIV Infection" Life 11, no. 6: 527. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11060527

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