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Brief Report

Self-Reported Real-World Safety and Reactogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Vaccine Recipient Survey

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Division of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
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North West Lung Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
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Department of Respiratory Medicine, Salford Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M6 8HD, UK
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Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Salford Royal Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M6 8HD, UK
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Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
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Regional Infectious Diseases Unit, North Manchester General Hospital, Manchester M8 5RB, UK
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Department of Virology, Manchester Medical Microbiology Partnership, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
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Vaccine Evaluation Unit, Public Health England, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9WL, UK
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Department of Cardiology, Hygeia Hospital, 15123 Athens, Greece
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Allergy Clinic, Petrakis Allergy Care, 55133 Thessaloniki, Greece
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School of Healthcare Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15 6BH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Theodoros Rampias, Apostolos Beloukas and Pavlos Pavlidis
Life 2021, 11(3), 249; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030249
Received: 24 February 2021 / Revised: 15 March 2021 / Accepted: 16 March 2021 / Published: 17 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecology, Evolution and Epidemiology of Coronaviruses)
An online survey was conducted to compare the safety, tolerability and reactogenicity of available COVID-19 vaccines in different recipient groups. This survey was launched in February 2021 and ran for 11 days. Recipients of a first COVID-19 vaccine dose ≥7 days prior to survey completion were eligible. The incidence and severity of vaccination side effects were assessed. The survey was completed by 2002 respondents of whom 26.6% had a prior COVID-19 infection. A prior COVID-19 infection was associated with an increased risk of any side effect (risk ratio 1.08, 95% confidence intervals (1.05–1.11)), fever (2.24 (1.86–2.70)), breathlessness (2.05 (1.28–3.29)), flu-like illness (1.78 (1.51–2.10)), fatigue (1.34 (1.20–1.49)) and local reactions (1.10 (1.06–1.15)). It was also associated with an increased risk of severe side effects leading to hospital care (1.56 (1.14–2.12)). While mRNA vaccines were associated with a higher incidence of any side effect (1.06 (1.01–1.11)) compared with viral vector-based vaccines, these were generally milder (p < 0.001), mostly local reactions. Importantly, mRNA vaccine recipients reported a considerably lower incidence of systemic reactions (RR < 0.6) including anaphylaxis, swelling, flu-like illness, breathlessness and fatigue and of side effects requiring hospital care (0.42 (0.31–0.58)). Our study confirms the findings of recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) demonstrating that COVID-19 vaccines are generally safe with limited severe side effects. For the first time, our study links prior COVID-19 illness with an increased incidence of vaccination side effects and demonstrates that mRNA vaccines cause milder, less frequent systemic side effects but more local reactions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Coronavirus Disease 2019; COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccine; safety; reactogenicity; tolerability; adverse events Coronavirus Disease 2019; COVID-19; COVID-19 vaccine; safety; reactogenicity; tolerability; adverse events
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mathioudakis, A.G.; Ghrew, M.; Ustianowski, A.; Ahmad, S.; Borrow, R.; Papavasileiou, L.P.; Petrakis, D.; Bakerly, N.D. Self-Reported Real-World Safety and Reactogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Vaccine Recipient Survey. Life 2021, 11, 249. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030249

AMA Style

Mathioudakis AG, Ghrew M, Ustianowski A, Ahmad S, Borrow R, Papavasileiou LP, Petrakis D, Bakerly ND. Self-Reported Real-World Safety and Reactogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Vaccine Recipient Survey. Life. 2021; 11(3):249. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030249

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mathioudakis, Alexander G., Murad Ghrew, Andrew Ustianowski, Shazaad Ahmad, Ray Borrow, Lida Pieretta Papavasileiou, Dimitrios Petrakis, and Nawar Diar Bakerly. 2021. "Self-Reported Real-World Safety and Reactogenicity of COVID-19 Vaccines: A Vaccine Recipient Survey" Life 11, no. 3: 249. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11030249

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