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Systemic Inflammation Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in Persons Living with HIV
Review

Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: From Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Treatment Approaches

1
Department of Neurological Sciences, Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP), 15090000 São Paulo, Brazil
2
Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine of São José do Rio Preto (FAMERP), 15090000 São Paulo, Brazil
3
Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2021, 11(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020095
Received: 20 December 2020 / Revised: 20 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 January 2021 / Published: 27 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immune Reconstitution Disorders)
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) presents as an exaggerated immune reaction that occurs during dysregulated immune restoration in immunocompromised patients in late-stage human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have commenced antiretroviral treatments (ART). Virtually any opportunistic pathogen can provoke this type of immune restoration disorder. In this review, we focus on recent developments in the identification of risk factors for Cryptococcal IRIS and on advancements in our understanding of C-IRIS immunopathogenesis. We overview new findings in blood and cerebrospinal fluid which can potentially be useful in the prediction and diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis IRIS (CM-IRIS). We assess current therapeutic regimens and novel treatment approaches to combat CM-IRIS. We discuss the utility of biomarkers for clinical monitoring and adjusting treatment modalities in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients co-infected with Cryptococcus who have initiated ART. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS); AIDS/HIV; antiretroviral therapy (ART); cryptococcal meningitis (CM); blood biomarkers; cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS); AIDS/HIV; antiretroviral therapy (ART); cryptococcal meningitis (CM); blood biomarkers; cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers
MDPI and ACS Style

Brienze, V.M.S.; André, J.C.; Liso, E.; Vlasova-St. Louis, I. Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: From Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Treatment Approaches. Life 2021, 11, 95. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020095

AMA Style

Brienze VMS, André JC, Liso E, Vlasova-St. Louis I. Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: From Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Treatment Approaches. Life. 2021; 11(2):95. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020095

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brienze, Vânia M.S., Júlio C. André, Elisabete Liso, and Irina Vlasova-St. Louis. 2021. "Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: From Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Treatment Approaches" Life 11, no. 2: 95. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11020095

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