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Clinical Implications of Uric Acid in Heart Failure: A Comprehensive Review

1
Department of Pathophysiology, University of Split School of Medicine, 21000 Split, Croatia
2
Institute of Emergency Medicine of Split-Dalmatia County (ZHM SDZ), 21000 Split, Croatia
3
Department of Endocrinology, University Hospital of Split, Spinčićeva 1, 21000 Split, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2021, 11(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/life11010053
Received: 29 December 2020 / Revised: 10 January 2021 / Accepted: 11 January 2021 / Published: 14 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Research)
Affecting more than 26 million people worldwide and with rising prevalence, heart failure (HF) represents a major global health problem. Hence, further research is needed in order to abate poor HF outcomes and mitigate significant expenses that burden health care systems. Based on available data, experts agree that there is an urgent need for a cost-effective prognostic biomarker in HF. Although a significant number of biomarkers have already been investigated in this setting, the clinical utility of adding biomarker evaluation to routine HF care still remains ambiguous. Specifically, in this review we focused on uric acid (UA), a purine metabolism detriment whose role as cardiovascular risk factor has been exhaustingly debated for decades. Multiple large population studies indicate that UA is an independent predictor of mortality in acute and chronic HF, making it a significant prognostic factor in both settings. High serum levels have been also associated with an increased incidence of HF, thus expanding the clinical utility of UA. Importantly, emerging data suggests that UA is also implicated in the pathogenesis of HF, which sheds light on UA as a feasible therapeutic target. Although to date clinical studies have not been able to prove the benefits of xanthine oxidase in HF patients, we discuss the putative role of UA and xanthine oxidase in the pathophysiology of HF as a therapeutic target. View Full-Text
Keywords: uric acid; heart failure; biomarkers; OXIDATIVE stress uric acid; heart failure; biomarkers; OXIDATIVE stress
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumrić, M.; Borovac, J.A; Kurir, T.T.; Božić, J. Clinical Implications of Uric Acid in Heart Failure: A Comprehensive Review. Life 2021, 11, 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11010053

AMA Style

Kumrić M, Borovac JA, Kurir TT, Božić J. Clinical Implications of Uric Acid in Heart Failure: A Comprehensive Review. Life. 2021; 11(1):53. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11010053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumrić, Marko; Borovac, Josip A; Kurir, Tina T.; Božić, Joško. 2021. "Clinical Implications of Uric Acid in Heart Failure: A Comprehensive Review" Life 11, no. 1: 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/life11010053

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