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Recent Advances in the Photoautotrophic Metabolism of Cyanobacteria: Biotechnological Implications

1
Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2
Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA), Centre de Cadarache St Paul Lez, 13108 Durance, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Life 2020, 10(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10050071
Received: 15 April 2020 / Revised: 16 May 2020 / Accepted: 18 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Engineering)
Cyanobacteria constitute the only phylum of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic prokaryotes that shaped the oxygenic atmosphere of our planet. Over time, cyanobacteria have evolved as a widely diverse group of organisms that have colonized most aquatic and soil ecosystems of our planet and constitute a large proportion of the biomass that sustains the biosphere. Cyanobacteria synthesize a vast array of biologically active metabolites that are of great interest for human health and industry, and several model cyanobacteria can be genetically manipulated. Hence, cyanobacteria are regarded as promising microbial factories for the production of chemicals from highly abundant natural resources, e.g., solar energy, CO2, minerals, and waters, eventually coupled to wastewater treatment to save costs. In this review, we summarize new important discoveries on the plasticity of the photoautotrophic metabolism of cyanobacteria, emphasizing the coordinated partitioning of carbon and nitrogen towards growth or compound storage, and the importance of these processes for biotechnological perspectives. We also emphasize the importance of redox regulation (including glutathionylation) on these processes, a subject which has often been overlooked. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyanobacteria; biodiversity; photosynthesis; CO2 assimilation; nitrogen fixation; metabolic plasticity; regulation; redox control; production of chemicals for health and industries cyanobacteria; biodiversity; photosynthesis; CO2 assimilation; nitrogen fixation; metabolic plasticity; regulation; redox control; production of chemicals for health and industries
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Veaudor, T.; Blanc-Garin, V.; Chenebault, C.; Diaz-Santos, E.; Sassi, J.-F.; Cassier-Chauvat, C.; Chauvat, F. Recent Advances in the Photoautotrophic Metabolism of Cyanobacteria: Biotechnological Implications. Life 2020, 10, 71.

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