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Article

Novel Modular Rhodopsins from Green Algae Hold Great Potential for Cellular Optogenetic Modulation Across the Biological Model Systems

1
Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
2
Laboratory of Optobiology, School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Equally contributed.
Life 2020, 10(11), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110259
Received: 3 September 2020 / Revised: 18 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 28 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Biophysics and Computational Biology)
Light-gated ion channel and ion pump rhodopsins are widely used as optogenetic tools and these can control the electrically excitable cells as (1) they are a single-component system i.e., their light sensing and ion-conducting functions are encoded by the 7-transmembrane domains and, (2) they show fast kinetics with small dark-thermal recovery time. In cellular signaling, a signal receptor, modulator, and the effector components are involved in attaining synchronous regulation of signaling. Optical modulation of the multicomponent network requires either receptor to effector encoded in a single ORF or direct modulation of the effector domain through bypassing all upstream players. Recently discovered modular rhodopsins like rhodopsin guanylate cyclase (RhoGC) and rhodopsin phosphodiesterase (RhoPDE) paves the way to establish a proof of concept for utilization of complex rhodopsin (modular rhodopsin) for optogenetic applications. Light sensor coupled modular system could be expressed in any cell type and hence holds great potential in the advancement of optogenetics 2.0 which would enable manipulating the entire relevant cell signaling system. Here, we had identified 50 novel modular rhodopsins with variant domains and their diverse cognate signaling cascades encoded in a single ORF, which are associated with specialized functions in the cells. These novel modular algal rhodopsins have been characterized based on their sequence and structural homology with previously reported rhodopsins. The presented novel modular rhodopsins with various effector domains leverage the potential to expand the optogenetic tool kit to regulate various cellular signaling pathways across the diverse biological model systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: enzyme-rhodopsin; channelrhodopsins; optogenetics; two-component system; cyclase; phosphodiesterase enzyme-rhodopsin; channelrhodopsins; optogenetics; two-component system; cyclase; phosphodiesterase
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MDPI and ACS Style

Awasthi, M.; Sushmita, K.; Kaushik, M.S.; Ranjan, P.; Kateriya, S. Novel Modular Rhodopsins from Green Algae Hold Great Potential for Cellular Optogenetic Modulation Across the Biological Model Systems. Life 2020, 10, 259. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110259

AMA Style

Awasthi M, Sushmita K, Kaushik MS, Ranjan P, Kateriya S. Novel Modular Rhodopsins from Green Algae Hold Great Potential for Cellular Optogenetic Modulation Across the Biological Model Systems. Life. 2020; 10(11):259. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110259

Chicago/Turabian Style

Awasthi, Mayanka, Kumari Sushmita, Manish S. Kaushik, Peeyush Ranjan, and Suneel Kateriya. 2020. "Novel Modular Rhodopsins from Green Algae Hold Great Potential for Cellular Optogenetic Modulation Across the Biological Model Systems" Life 10, no. 11: 259. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10110259

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