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Article

Multiple Non-Species-Specific Pathogens Possibly Triggered the Mass Mortality in Pinna nobilis

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Dipartimento di Medicina Veterinaria, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Università degli Studi di Sassari, Viale San Pietro 43/B, 07100 Sassari, Italy
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Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, Via Bologna 148, 10154 Torino, Italy
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IMC-International Marine Centre, Loc. Sa Mardini, Torregrande, 09170 Oristano, Italy
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Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università di Cagliari, Via Fiorelli 1, 09126 Cagliari, Italy
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Area Marina Protetta Capo Carbonara, Comune di Villasimius, Via Roma 60, 09049 Villasimius, Italy
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Regiona autonoma della Sardegna, Via Roma 80, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
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Area Marina Protetta “Isola dell’Asinara”, 07046 Porto Torres, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fabio Scarpa and Daria Sanna equally contributed to this paper.
Life 2020, 10(10), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/life10100238
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 3 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 October 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Evolutionary Biology)
The fan mussel, Pinna nobilis, represents the largest bivalve endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. Since 2016, dramatic mass mortality of this species has been observed in several areas. The first surveys suggested that Haplosporidium pinnae (currently considered species-specific) was the main etiological agent, but recent studies have indicated that a multifactorial disease may be responsible for this phenomenon. In this study, we performed molecular diagnostic analyses on P. nobilis, P. rudis, and bivalve heterologous host species from the island of Sardinia to shed further light on the pathogens involved in the mass mortality. The results support the occurrence of a multifactorial disease and that Mycobacterium spp. and H. pinnae are not necessarily associated with the illness. Indeed, our analyses revealed that H. pinnae is not species-specific for P. nobilis, as it was present in other bivalves at least three years before the mass mortality began, and species of Mycobacterium were also found in healthy individuals of P. nobilis and P. rudis. We also detected the species Rhodococcus erythropolis, representing the first report in fan mussels of a bacterium other than Mycobacterium spp. and Vibrio spp. These results depict a complicated scenario, further demonstrating how the P. nobilis mass mortality event is far from being fully understood. View Full-Text
Keywords: fan mussel; Mycobacterium sp.; Haplosporidium pinnae; Rhodococcus erythropolis; multifactorial disease; Sardinia; heterologous host species; sentinel species; Pinna rudis fan mussel; Mycobacterium sp.; Haplosporidium pinnae; Rhodococcus erythropolis; multifactorial disease; Sardinia; heterologous host species; sentinel species; Pinna rudis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scarpa, F.; Sanna, D.; Azzena, I.; Mugetti, D.; Cerruti, F.; Hosseini, S.; Cossu, P.; Pinna, S.; Grech, D.; Cabana, D.; Pasquini, V.; Esposito, G.; Cadoni, N.; Atzori, F.; Antuofermo, E.; Addis, P.; Sechi, L.A.; Prearo, M.; Peletto, S.; Mossa, M.A.; Saba, T.; Gazale, V.; Casu, M. Multiple Non-Species-Specific Pathogens Possibly Triggered the Mass Mortality in Pinna nobilis. Life 2020, 10, 238. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10100238

AMA Style

Scarpa F, Sanna D, Azzena I, Mugetti D, Cerruti F, Hosseini S, Cossu P, Pinna S, Grech D, Cabana D, Pasquini V, Esposito G, Cadoni N, Atzori F, Antuofermo E, Addis P, Sechi LA, Prearo M, Peletto S, Mossa MA, Saba T, Gazale V, Casu M. Multiple Non-Species-Specific Pathogens Possibly Triggered the Mass Mortality in Pinna nobilis. Life. 2020; 10(10):238. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10100238

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scarpa, Fabio, Daria Sanna, Ilenia Azzena, Davide Mugetti, Francesco Cerruti, Sepideh Hosseini, Piero Cossu, Stefania Pinna, Daniele Grech, David Cabana, Viviana Pasquini, Giuseppe Esposito, Nicoletta Cadoni, Fabrizio Atzori, Elisabetta Antuofermo, Piero Addis, Leonardo A. Sechi, Marino Prearo, Simone Peletto, Marianna A. Mossa, Tiziana Saba, Vittorio Gazale, and Marco Casu. 2020. "Multiple Non-Species-Specific Pathogens Possibly Triggered the Mass Mortality in Pinna nobilis" Life 10, no. 10: 238. https://doi.org/10.3390/life10100238

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