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Article

Automation of the Leonardo da Vinci Machines

1
Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica e Informatica, University of Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania, Italy
2
Istituto di Analisi dei Sistemi e Informatica “A. Ruberti”, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Via dei Taurini 19, 00185 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Machines 2020, 8(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/machines8030053
Received: 27 July 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 1 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
Leonardo da Vinci inventions and projects represent an intriguing starting point to remark the concept that innovation must be considered as a continuous route towards evolution in history. Some of the particular ideas and innovations presented by Leonardo da Vinci led us to formulate a link with automatic control. Selected models of the Leonardo da Vinci machines are presented in this paper, taking strictly into account the original mechanical schemes and working principles, but introducing modern low-cost control equipment, emphasizing the role of automatic control and that of electronic control devices, such as microcontrollers, sensors, and communication devices, to completely automate the Leonardo da Vinci machines. The approach outlined in the paper can be applied not only to other Leonardo machines but also to other mechanical equipment not necessarily designed by Leonardo da Vinci. Moreover, it is useful to remark that the approach followed in this paper can be very important also to introduce students, leading by example, to concepts typical of automation and for assisting in learning, keeping in mind the practical applications of advanced automation principles. The main research task of this paper is proving the efficacy of modern digital control techniques and teleoperation in strongly classical mechanical Leonardo machines, remarking that the projects of Leonardo are prompt to be efficiently controlled. This task could not be explored by Leonardo himself due to the lack of control technology. Moreover, the paper is addressed also to stimulate the young generations of engineers in joining classical mechanics with advanced technology. Therefore, the paper is also devoted to give focus on the fact that the Leonardo machines encompass all the key aspects of modern system engineering. View Full-Text
Keywords: intelligent devices; machines; microcontrollers; educational engineering; control education intelligent devices; machines; microcontrollers; educational engineering; control education
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bucolo, M.; Buscarino, A.; Famoso, C.; Fortuna, L.; Gagliano, S. Automation of the Leonardo da Vinci Machines. Machines 2020, 8, 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines8030053

AMA Style

Bucolo M, Buscarino A, Famoso C, Fortuna L, Gagliano S. Automation of the Leonardo da Vinci Machines. Machines. 2020; 8(3):53. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines8030053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bucolo, Maide, Arturo Buscarino, Carlo Famoso, Luigi Fortuna, and Salvina Gagliano. 2020. "Automation of the Leonardo da Vinci Machines" Machines 8, no. 3: 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/machines8030053

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