This study considers the mathematical analysis framework aimed at the adequate description of the modes of lasers on the threshold of non-attenuated in time light emission. The lasers are viewed as open dielectric resonators equipped with active regions, filled in with gain material. We introduce a generalized complex-frequency eigenvalue problem for such cavities and prove important properties of the spectrum of its eigensolutions. This involves reduction of the problem to the set of the Muller boundary integral equations and their discretization with the Nystrom technique. Embedded into this general framework is the application-oriented lasing eigenvalue problem, where the real emission frequencies and the threshold gain values together form two-component eigenvalues. As an example of on-threshold mode study, we present numerical results related to the two-dimensional laser shaped as an active equilateral triangle with a round piercing hole. It is demonstrated that the threshold of lasing and the directivity of light emission, for each mode, can be efficiently manipulated with the aid of the size and, especially, the placement of the piercing hole, while the frequency of emission remains largely intact.
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