# Developing an Intelligent Cellular Structure Design for a UAV Wireless Communication Topology

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Related Studies

- Determining parameters that affect designing cellular structure designs from a UAV perspective and via using MIMO antenna;
- Developing an AI framework to optimize the cellular structure design automatically;
- Validating the proposed work in the case of a real urban and densely populated zone.

## 3. Proposed UAV Topology and Simulation

#### 3.1. Cellular Structure Design

- Central cell radius
- Beamwidth
- Beams angles
- Tiers number
- Environment type (Urban, Suburban, Rural)
- Population density
- Probability of Building Distribution

#### 3.2. Mathematical Calculation of Link Budget and AI Framework

_{t}denotes transmitter power, G

_{t}denotes UAV antenna gain, G

_{r}denotes receiver antenna gain, L denotes losses, SINR denotes signal-to-interference-noise ratio (dB), N denotes noise figure (dB), I denotes interference (dB), $\mathrm{T}$ denotes throughput (Mb/S), and B denotes bandwidth (MHz).

## 4. Discussion and Proof-of-Concept

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Aerial platform examples across the globe. (

**a**) Google Loon—International, (

**b**) HAA—USA, (

**c**) ABSOLUTE Tethered Balloon—EU, (

**d**) KARI—Korean, (

**e**) Facebook fixed-wing Aircraft—International, (

**f**) PSATRI Drone—KSA.

**Figure 3.**Proposed intelligent heterogenous 5G topology that integrates a UAV-based system with IoE and AI.

Ref. | UAV Platform Type | Network Topology | AI Framework | Cellular Design |
---|---|---|---|---|

[21] | HAP | Standalone | - | Adaptive beamforming with fixed cellular design |

[22] | LAP | Standalone | NN | Adaptive beamforming with fixed cellular design |

[23] | Drone | Standalone | - | Predefined cellular scenarios |

[24] | Drone | Standalone | - | Optimized omnidirectional antenna for micro cells |

[25] | Swarm of UAVs | Multilayer | - | Beamforming designs using multiple-antenna |

[26] | Drone | Standalone | - | Multi beam at a fixed location |

[27] | LAP | Standalone | ML | Static circular cellular structure design |

[28] | UAV | Integrated UAVs | - | Predefined trajectory of cellular structure design |

[29] | UAV | Standalone | - | Beam switching technique used to structure the cellular network |

[30] | UAV | Standalone | - | Modified parallel projection algorithm to adjust the distance of cellular |

[31] | Drone | Fleet of drones | - | Cooperative cellular design |

[32] | Tethered platform | Standalone | RBF | Semi-adaptive cellular structure design |

[33] | Drone | Standalone | - | Massive MIMO for small cellular structure |

[34] | Drone | Standalone | RL | Enhance cellular system by focusing on jamming channels |

[35] | Drone | Integrated UAVs | DRL | Focusing on the central of cellular structure |

Proposed Model | UAVs | Heterogenous UAVs Topology | SOM and NN | Adaptive and intelligent cellular structure design via MIMO Beamforming and AI framework |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Alkhalifah, E.S.; Almalki, F.A.
Developing an Intelligent Cellular Structure Design for a UAV Wireless Communication Topology. *Axioms* **2023**, *12*, 129.
https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms12020129

**AMA Style**

Alkhalifah ES, Almalki FA.
Developing an Intelligent Cellular Structure Design for a UAV Wireless Communication Topology. *Axioms*. 2023; 12(2):129.
https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms12020129

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Alkhalifah, Eman S., and Faris A. Almalki.
2023. "Developing an Intelligent Cellular Structure Design for a UAV Wireless Communication Topology" *Axioms* 12, no. 2: 129.
https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms12020129