2. Sustainable Development of Mining Waste
- Social dimensions: What are the local, regional, and global societal dimensions related to managing mining waste?
- Geoenvironmental aspects: What are the spatial and temporal geoenvironmental impacts resulting from mining waste, and how can potential liabilities be prevented or substantially mitigated?
- Geometallurgy specifications: What are the geometallurgical properties to create additional value and improve environmental outcomes in waste from mining and mineral processing?
- Economic drivers and legal implications: How and what economic drivers should lead the changes in regulatory systems, to transform business approaches for creating value, diminishing risk and drastically mitigating liabilities from mining waste?
- Circular economy aspirations: How can the mining industry assess and quantify their contribution to the circular economy?
3. Five Areas of Integrative Approach
3.1. Social Dimensions
3.2. Geoenvironmental Aspects
3.2.1. Waste Rocks Dumps
3.2.2. Tailings Dams
3.3. Geometallurgy Specifications
- A de-sliming stage prior to the flotation process, where fine liberated enargite can be separated from the flotation feed; and
- A fine treatment stage, where the fine gangue minerals can be separated, the copper can be recovered, and the arsenic can be safely stored.
3.4. Economic Drivers and Legal Implications
3.5. Circular Economy Aspirations
- Circular economy sensu stricto:
- Improving water and material reuse through cyclic systems and innovative technologies;
- Maximizing reuse of waste and by-products;
- Collaborating with the manufacturing sector to design adaptable and easy-to-repair products;
- Better marking of materials and alloys to aid identification at end-of-life and allow subsequent reuse and recycling.
- Efficiency measures as part of the circular economy in a wider sense:
- limiting the use of raw materials and balancing supply and demand;
- Improving recovery rates in mining and mineral processing;
- Minimizing waste generation such as tailings, gas emissions, and waste water;
- Developing feasible options for lower grade ores;
- Extending the life of a resource, material, product, or service through better planning for future applications and reuse .
4. Re-Thinking Mining Waste
Conflicts of Interest
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|1||Ethical business and sound governance|
|2||Integrate sustainable development in decision-making|
|3||Respect for human rights|
|4||Effective risk management strategies|
|5||Health and safety performance|
|7||Conservation of biodiversity and land-use planning|
|8||Responsible design, use, reuse, recycling, and disposal of materials|
|10||Engagement, communication and independently-verified reporting|
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