Fiemmeite Cu2(C2O4)(OH)2∙2H2O, a New Mineral from Val di Fiemme, Trentino, Italy
Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via C. Golgi 19, I-20133 Milano, Italy
MUSE, Museo delle Scienze di Trento, Corso del Lavoro e della Scienza 3, I-38122 Trento, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2018, 8(6), 248; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8060248
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 7 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 12 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Mineral Species and Their Crystal Structures)
The new mineral species fiemmeite, Cu2(C2O4)(OH)2∙2H2O, was found NE of the Passo di San Lugano, Val di Fiemme, Carano, Trento, Italy (latitude 46.312° N, longitude 11.406° E). It occurs in coalified woods at the base of the Val Gardena Sandstone (upper Permian) which were permeated by mineralizing solutions containing Cu, U, As, Pb and Zn. The oxalate anions have originated from diagenesis of the plant remains included in sandstones. The mineral forms aggregate up to 1 mm across of sky blue platelets with single crystals reaching maximum dimensions of about 50 μm. Associated minerals are: baryte, olivenite, middlebackite, moolooite, brochantite, cuprite, devilline, malachite, azurite, zeunerite/metazeunerite, tennantite, chalcocite, galena. Fiemmeite is monoclinic, space group: P21/c with a = 3.4245(6), b = 10.141(2), c = 19.397(3) Å, β = 90.71(1)°, V = 673.6(2) Å3, Z = 4. The calculated density is 2.802 g/cm3 while the observed density is 2.78(1) g/cm3. The six strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern are: [dobs in Å (I)(hkl)] 5.079(100)(020), 3.072(58)(112), 9.71(55)(002), 4.501(50)(022), 7.02(28)(012), 2.686(25)(114). The crystal structure was refined from single-crystal data to a final R1 = 0.0386 for 1942 observed reflections [I > 2σ(I)] with all the hydrogen atoms located from a Difference–Fourier map. The asymmetric unit contains two independent Cu2+ cations that display a distorted square-bipyramidal (4+2) coordination, one oxalate anion, two hydroxyl anions and two water molecules. The coordination polyhedra of the two copper atoms share common edges to form polymeric rows running along  with composition [Cu2(C2O4)(OH)2∙2H2O]n. These rows are held together by a well-established pattern of hydrogen bonds between the oxalate oxygens not involved in the coordination to copper, the hydrogen atoms of the water molecules and the hydroxyl anions.