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Minerals 2018, 8(10), 465;

Multi-Analytical Investigation of Stains on Dimension Stones in Master Valentim’s Fountain, Brazil

Centre for Mineral Technology (CETEM), Av. Pedro Calmon 900, Cidade Universitária, 21941-908 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 August 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
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Master Valentim’s fountain has become an important historical patrimony for Brazil, being portrayed by famous artists, among them Jean-Baptiste Debret. In 1938, it was registered as cultural heritage by the Brazilian National Historical and Artistic Heritage Institute (IPHAN), and in 1990 it was subjected to excavation and restoration works. The fountain was built in Gneiss and Lioz limestone, with metallic plates and mortar connecting the Gneiss blocks. Currently, deteriorations in the fountain stones can be observed, such as light stains and some aesthetic modifications caused by inadequate restorations. Petrography, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), XRD, physical properties, colorimetry, electrical conductivity, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and TGA were performed in order to characterize the Gneiss blocks, the metallic plates, and the stones used in previous restorations, as well as light stains observed on the Gneiss blocks. The petrography and XRD analyses inferred that the light stains may have been caused by the formation of an insoluble salt as a result of the association of the lead from the plates with other elements. The XRD analysis on the light staining area indicated the presence of cerussite (PbCO3) and anglesite (PbSO4), which are the probable cause of the light stains. The SEM-EDX results suggested that sulfur is the main element associated to lead. View Full-Text
Keywords: Master Valentim’s fountain; Gneiss; Lioz limestone; conservation and restoration Master Valentim’s fountain; Gneiss; Lioz limestone; conservation and restoration

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Da Conceição Ribeiro, R.C.; Marques Ferreira de Figueiredo, P.; Silva Barbutti, D. Multi-Analytical Investigation of Stains on Dimension Stones in Master Valentim’s Fountain, Brazil. Minerals 2018, 8, 465.

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