Next Article in Journal
Synchrotron Radiation XRD Investigation of the Fine Phase Transformation during Synthetic Chalcocite Acidic Ferric Sulfate Leaching
Next Article in Special Issue
Economic Block Model Development for Mining Seafloor Massive Sulfides
Previous Article in Journal
Editorial for Special Issue “Geomicrobiology and Biogeochemistry of Precious Metals”
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessment of the Mineral Resource Potential of Atlantic Ferromanganese Crusts Based on Their Growth History, Microstructure, and Texture
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Minerals 2018, 8(10), 460;

Mineral Phase-Element Associations Based on Sequential Leaching of Ferromanganese Crusts, Amerasia Basin Arctic Ocean

Institute of Earth Sciences, Saint-Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
Department of Geology and Mineral Resources, Institute for Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean (VNIIOkeangeologia), St. Petersburg 190121, Russia
Pacific Coastal & Marine Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA
Department of Ocean Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
The Laboratory HERCULES, University of Evora, 7000-809 Évora, Portugal
Laboratory of Regional Geology and Tectonic, Far East Geological Institute FEB RAS, Vladivostok 690022, Russia
School of Engineering, Far East Federal University, Vladivostok 690950, Russia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep-Sea Minerals and Gas Hydrates)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4722 KB, uploaded 17 October 2018]   |  


Ferromanganese (FeMn) crusts from Mendeleev Ridge, Chukchi Borderland, and Alpha Ridge, in the Amerasia Basin, Arctic Ocean, are similar based on morphology and chemical composition. The crusts are characterized by a two- to four-layered stratigraphy. The chemical composition of the Arctic crusts differs significantly from hydrogenetic crusts from elsewhere of global ocean by high mean Fe/Mn ratios, high As, Li, V, Sc, and Th concentrations, and high detrital contents. Here, we present element distributions through crust stratigraphic sections and element phase association using several complementary techniques such as SEM-EDS, LA-ICP-MS, and sequential leaching, a widely employed method of element phase association that dissolves mineral phases of different stability step-by-step: Exchangeable cations and Ca carbonates, Mn-oxides, Fe-hydroxides, and residual fraction. Sequential leaching shows that the Arctic crusts have higher contents of most elements characteristic of the aluminosilicate phase than do Pacific crusts. Elements have similar distributions between the hydrogenetic Mn and Fe phases in all the Arctic and Pacific crusts. The main host phases for the elements enriched in the Arctic crusts over Pacific crusts (Li, As, Th, and V) are the Mn-phase for Li and Fe-phase for As, Th, and V; those elements also have higher contents in the residual aluminosilicate phase. Thus, higher concentrations of Li, As, Th, and V likely occur in the dissolved and particulate phases in bottom waters where the Arctic crusts grow, which has been shown to be true for Sc, also highly enriched in the crusts. The phase distributions of elements within the crust layers is mostly consistent among the Arctic crusts, being somewhat different in element concentrations in the residual phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ferromanganese crusts; sequential leaching; phase associations; Amerasia Basin; Arctic Ocean Ferromanganese crusts; sequential leaching; phase associations; Amerasia Basin; Arctic Ocean

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Konstantinova, N.; Hein, J.R.; Gartman, A.; Mizell, K.; Barrulas, P.; Cherkashov, G.; Mikhailik, P.; Khanchuk, A. Mineral Phase-Element Associations Based on Sequential Leaching of Ferromanganese Crusts, Amerasia Basin Arctic Ocean. Minerals 2018, 8, 460.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Minerals EISSN 2075-163X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top