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Production, Properties and Performance of Slag-Based, Geopolymer Foams

Laboratory of Metallurgy, School of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 115 27 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luis Pérez Villarejo and George Angelopoulos
Minerals 2021, 11(7), 732;
Received: 10 June 2021 / Revised: 29 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 6 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Valorization of Metallurgical and Mining Residues and Wastes)
This paper demonstrates the transformation of the industrial residue (copper slag) of a Swedish mining and smelting company “Boliden”, through geopolymerization, into advanced building materials. The main objective of this experimental study is the assessment of the appropriate conditions for the preparation of alkali-activated slag-based geopolymer pastes with further foaming production, by aluminum powder addition. The alkaline-activating solution used was KOH, at a constant concentration (8 M). The effect of crucial operating parameters, such as S/L ratio (3.5–4.5 g/mL) and aluminum powder addition (0.12%–0.22%), on the geopolymer paste were studied, in order to achieve the optimum rheological conditions of the slurry. The physical properties of the materials were examined after the appropriate curing process (24 h at 70 °C), with density values ranging between 805 and 1100 kg/m3. The mechanical performance of the materials ranged between 1.28 and 2 MPa (compressive strength), and from 0.25 to 0.85 MPa (flexural strength), indicating the strong correlation of physical and mechanical properties. To assess the porosity and the size distribution of the voids, image processing techniques were applied on digital images of selected samples. According to these results, the synthesized materials exhibit similar, or even better, properties than the current concrete porous materials. View Full-Text
Keywords: geopolymerization; slag; foaming; porosity geopolymerization; slag; foaming; porosity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsaousi, G.-M.; Panias, D. Production, Properties and Performance of Slag-Based, Geopolymer Foams. Minerals 2021, 11, 732.

AMA Style

Tsaousi G-M, Panias D. Production, Properties and Performance of Slag-Based, Geopolymer Foams. Minerals. 2021; 11(7):732.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsaousi, Georgia-Maria, and Dimitrios Panias. 2021. "Production, Properties and Performance of Slag-Based, Geopolymer Foams" Minerals 11, no. 7: 732.

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