Next Article in Journal
Oxygen-Isotope-Based Modeling of the Hydrothermal Fluid Processes of the Taochong Skarn Iron Deposit, Anhui Province, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Growth Interruptions in Arctic Rhodoliths Correspond to Water Depth and Rhodolith Morphology
Previous Article in Journal
Describing Phosphorus Sorption Processes on Volcanic Soil in the Presence of Copper or Silver Engineered Nanoparticles
Article

Assessment of Annual Physico-Chemical Variability via High-Temporal Resolution Monitoring in an Antarctic Shallow Coastal Site (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea)

1
Marine Environment Research Centre of S. Teresa, ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development), 19032 Lerici, Italy
2
Department of Marine Ecology, Institute of Oceanology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 81-712 Sopot, Poland
3
Institute of Marine Engineering, CNR (Italian National Research Council), 16149 Genova, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Paolo Montagna and Marco Taviani
Minerals 2021, 11(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040374
Received: 21 February 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 2 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polar Marine Carbonates)
The Southern Ocean is an important atmospheric carbon sink, and potential changes in the carbon flux in this region will affect the ocean as a whole. Thus, to monitor the variability of its physico-chemical parameters is becoming a priority. This study provides the first high-resolution all-year-round record of observed and computed physico-chemical data from a shallow coastal site in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea). From November 2018 to November 2019, an underwater observatory deployed at a 25 m depth under an ice pack recorded pressure (p), temperature (t), electrical conductivity (C), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH in total scale (pHT), and illuminance (Ev). Practical salinity (SP), density (ρ), tidal constituents, carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (TA), carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), calcite, and aragonite (ΩCa, ΩAr)), together with sea ice concentration (SIC) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), were derived from measured and satellite data. t, DO, and pHT displayed the lowest values between July and November (–1.95 °C, 6.61 mL L−1, 7.97) whereas the highest in January (+1.08 °C, 10.61 mL L−1, 8.35). SP had the lowest values (33.72 PSU) in February and the highest (34.87 PSU) in September. Ev peaked in March (201 lux), with the highest values (>50 lux) in correspondence to the lowest values of SIC and a delayed trend, between December and March, with respect to Chl-a values (0.2–1.1 mg m−3). ΩCa and ΩAr showed their highest average monthly values (±s.d.) in January (ΩCa: 3.41 ± 0.27; ΩAr: 2.14 ± 0.17), when DO had maximum values. The lowest Ω occurred in September (ΩCa: 2.11 ± 0.02; ΩAr: 1.32 ± 0.02), at the end of phytoplankton activity. No undersaturation for both calcite and aragonite was recorded during the study period. This study highlights that biological activities and physico-chemical variables of the investigated shallow coastal site are coupled and, in many cases, influence each other. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctica; environmental variability; pH measurement; underwater observatory; conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) probe; autonomous; illuminance measurement; climate change Antarctica; environmental variability; pH measurement; underwater observatory; conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) probe; autonomous; illuminance measurement; climate change
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Lombardi, C.; Kuklinski, P.; Bordone, A.; Spirandelli, E.; Raiteri, G. Assessment of Annual Physico-Chemical Variability via High-Temporal Resolution Monitoring in an Antarctic Shallow Coastal Site (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea). Minerals 2021, 11, 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040374

AMA Style

Lombardi C, Kuklinski P, Bordone A, Spirandelli E, Raiteri G. Assessment of Annual Physico-Chemical Variability via High-Temporal Resolution Monitoring in an Antarctic Shallow Coastal Site (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea). Minerals. 2021; 11(4):374. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040374

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lombardi, Chiara, Piotr Kuklinski, Andrea Bordone, Edoardo Spirandelli, and Giancarlo Raiteri. 2021. "Assessment of Annual Physico-Chemical Variability via High-Temporal Resolution Monitoring in an Antarctic Shallow Coastal Site (Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea)" Minerals 11, no. 4: 374. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11040374

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop