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Mining Wastes of an Albite Deposit as Raw Materials for Vitrified Mullite Ceramics
Review

Mullite-Based Ceramics from Mining Waste: A Review

1
MEDES-IETcc Group, Eduardo Torroja Institute for Construction Science, IETcc-CSIC, Serrano Galvache 4, 28033 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Integrated Sciences, Research Centre for Natural Resources, Health and Environment (RENSMA), El Carmen Campus, University of Huelva, 21007 Huelva, Spain
3
MEDES-CENIM Group, National Centre for Metallurgical Research, CENIM-CSIC, Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alexander Mikhailovich Kalinkin
Minerals 2021, 11(3), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030332
Received: 19 February 2021 / Revised: 16 March 2021 / Accepted: 18 March 2021 / Published: 23 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mining Waste as Raw Materials for Mullite-Based Ceramics)
Mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2) is an aluminosilicate characterized by excellent physical properties, which makes it an important ceramic material. In this way, ceramics based on mullite find applications in different technological fields as refractory material (metallurgy, glass, ceramics, etc.), matrix in composite materials for high temperature applications, substrate in multilayer packaging, protective coatings, components of turbine engines, windows transparent to infrared radiation, etc. However, mullite is scarce in nature so it has to be manufactured through different synthesis methods, such as sintering, melting-crystallization or through a sol-gel route. Commonly, mullite is fabricated from pure technical grade raw materials, making the manufacturing process expensive. An alternative to lowering the cost is the use of mining waste as silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) feedstock, which are the necessary chemical compounds required to manufacture mullite ceramics. In addition to the economic benefits, the use of mining waste brings out environmental benefits as it prevents the over-exploitation of natural resources and reduces the volume of mining waste that needs to be managed. This article reviews the scientific studies carried out in order to use waste (steriles and tailings) generated in mining activities for the manufacture of clay-based ceramic materials containing mullite as a main crystalline phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: mullite; clay-based ceramics; mining waste; sterile; tailings; iron and aluminum waste; boron; molybdenum and lithium waste; coal gangue; kaolin waste; ornamental rock waste mullite; clay-based ceramics; mining waste; sterile; tailings; iron and aluminum waste; boron; molybdenum and lithium waste; coal gangue; kaolin waste; ornamental rock waste
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MDPI and ACS Style

Romero, M.; Padilla, I.; Contreras, M.; López-Delgado, A. Mullite-Based Ceramics from Mining Waste: A Review. Minerals 2021, 11, 332. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030332

AMA Style

Romero M, Padilla I, Contreras M, López-Delgado A. Mullite-Based Ceramics from Mining Waste: A Review. Minerals. 2021; 11(3):332. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030332

Chicago/Turabian Style

Romero, Maximina, Isabel Padilla, Manuel Contreras, and Aurora López-Delgado. 2021. "Mullite-Based Ceramics from Mining Waste: A Review" Minerals 11, no. 3: 332. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030332

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