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Article

Mining Wastes of an Albite Deposit as Raw Materials for Vitrified Mullite Ceramics

1
Institute of Materials Science of Sevilla (ICMS), Joint Center of the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC)-University of Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla, Spain
2
Department of Engineering, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
3
Department of Chemical, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain
4
Center for Advanced Studies in Earth Sciences, Energy and Environment (CEACTEMA), University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaén, Spain
5
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, 265 04 Patras, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rolf Sjöblom
Minerals 2021, 11(3), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030232
Received: 30 December 2020 / Revised: 18 February 2021 / Accepted: 20 February 2021 / Published: 25 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mining Waste as Raw Materials for Mullite-Based Ceramics)
In this work, an examination of mining wastes of an albite deposit in south Spain was carried out using X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, thermo-dilatometry and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, followed by the determination of the main ceramic properties. The albite content in two selected samples was high (65–40 wt. %), accompanied by quartz (25–40 wt. %) and other minor minerals identified by XRD, mainly kaolinite, in agreement with the high content of silica and alumina determined by XRF. The content of Na2O was in the range 5.44–3.09 wt. %, being associated with albite. The iron content was very low (<0.75 wt. %). The kaolinite content in the waste was estimated from ~8 to 32 wt. %. The particle size analysis indicated values of 11–31 wt. % of particles <63 µm. The ceramic properties of fired samples (1000–1350 °C) showed progressive shrinkage by the thermal effect, with water absorption and open porosity almost at zero at 1200–1250 °C. At 1200 °C, the bulk density reached a maximum value of 2.38 g/cm3. An abrupt change in the phase evolution by XRD was found from 1150 to 1200 °C, with the disappearance of albite by melting in accordance with the predictions of the phase diagram SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O and the system albite-quartz. These fired materials contained as main crystalline phases quartz and mullite. Quartz was present in the raw samples and mullite was formed by decomposition of kaolinite. The observation of mullite forming needle-shape crystals was revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The formation of fully densified and vitrified mullite materials by firing treatments was demonstrated. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste mining; albite; quartz; kaolinite; mullite; vitrified; sintering waste mining; albite; quartz; kaolinite; mullite; vitrified; sintering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sánchez-Soto, P.J.; Garzón, E.; Pérez-Villarejo, L.; Angelopoulos, G.N.; Eliche-Quesada, D. Mining Wastes of an Albite Deposit as Raw Materials for Vitrified Mullite Ceramics. Minerals 2021, 11, 232. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030232

AMA Style

Sánchez-Soto PJ, Garzón E, Pérez-Villarejo L, Angelopoulos GN, Eliche-Quesada D. Mining Wastes of an Albite Deposit as Raw Materials for Vitrified Mullite Ceramics. Minerals. 2021; 11(3):232. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030232

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sánchez-Soto, Pedro J., Eduardo Garzón, Luis Pérez-Villarejo, George N. Angelopoulos, and Dolores Eliche-Quesada. 2021. "Mining Wastes of an Albite Deposit as Raw Materials for Vitrified Mullite Ceramics" Minerals 11, no. 3: 232. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11030232

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