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Article

Preliminary Data on Geochemical Characteristics of Major and Trace Elements in Typical Biominerals: From the Perspective of Human Kidney Stones

1
Department of Urology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China
2
Institute of Earth Sciences, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
3
Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
4
Nu Instruments, Wrexham LL13 9XS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Linus Stegbauer, Anne Jantschke and Fabio Nudelman
Minerals 2021, 11(12), 1396; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121396
Received: 10 November 2021 / Revised: 6 December 2021 / Accepted: 8 December 2021 / Published: 10 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biominerals and Bio-Inspired Materials)
The chemical composition of biominerals is essential for understanding biomineral formation and is regarded as an attractive subject in bio-mineralogical research on human kidney stones (urinary calculi). In order to obtain more geochemically interpreted data on biogenic minerals, mineralogical compositions and major and trace element concentrations of sixty-six kidney stone samples derived from kidney stone removal surgeries were measured. Infrared spectroscopy results showed that calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) were the two main mineral components of kidney stones. Geochemical results indicated that major and trace element concentrations were present in the following order: Ca > Mg > Na > K > Zn > Fe > Pb > Ba > Cu > Ti > Mo > Cd > Cr. With the exception of Ca, Mg was the second-most abundant element. Zn exhibited higher concentrations relative to other trace elements, which suggests a potential substitution of calcium by metal ions with a similar charge and radius rather than by metals in kidney stone formation. Pb appeared in significantly higher concentrations than in previous studies, which indicates Pb enrichment in the environment. In order to discern multi-element relationships within kidney stones, principal component analysis was applied. Three principal components (PCs, eigenvalues >1) were extracted to explain 64.4% of the total variance. The first component exhibited positively correlated Na-Zn-Cr-Mo-Cd-Pb, while the second component exhibited more positively weighted Mg-K-Ba-Ti. Fe-Cu demonstrated a positive correlation in the third component. This study suggests that Ca exhibits a preference for uptake by oxalates during human urinary stone crystallization, while other alkali metals and alkaline earth metals precipitate with phosphate. View Full-Text
Keywords: kidney stones; calcium oxalate monohydrate; calcium oxalate dihydrate; trace elements; elemental compositions; China kidney stones; calcium oxalate monohydrate; calcium oxalate dihydrate; trace elements; elemental compositions; China
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tian, Y.; Han, G.; Zeng, J.; Zhang, Q.; Xu, L.; Liu, K.; Xiao, C.; Ma, L.; Zhao, Y. Preliminary Data on Geochemical Characteristics of Major and Trace Elements in Typical Biominerals: From the Perspective of Human Kidney Stones. Minerals 2021, 11, 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121396

AMA Style

Tian Y, Han G, Zeng J, Zhang Q, Xu L, Liu K, Xiao C, Ma L, Zhao Y. Preliminary Data on Geochemical Characteristics of Major and Trace Elements in Typical Biominerals: From the Perspective of Human Kidney Stones. Minerals. 2021; 11(12):1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tian, Yu, Guilin Han, Jie Zeng, Qian Zhang, Lifang Xu, Ke Liu, Chunlei Xiao, Lulin Ma, and Ye Zhao. 2021. "Preliminary Data on Geochemical Characteristics of Major and Trace Elements in Typical Biominerals: From the Perspective of Human Kidney Stones" Minerals 11, no. 12: 1396. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11121396

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