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Article

Three-Dimensional Structural Analysis of Ferromanganese Nodules from the Western North Pacific Ocean Using X-ray Computed Tomography

1
Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
2
Ocean Resources Research Center for Next Generation (ORCeNG), Chiba Institute of Technology, 2-17-1 Tsudanuma, Narashino, Chiba 275-0016, Japan
3
Frontier Research Center for Energy and Resources (FRCER), School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco J. González
Minerals 2021, 11(10), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101100
Received: 22 September 2021 / Revised: 5 October 2021 / Accepted: 5 October 2021 / Published: 7 October 2021
The three-dimensional layered growth structure of 934 ferromanganese nodule samples collected from dives in the Pacific Ocean around Minamitorishima Island was assessed using X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT) to elucidate their growth history. The thickness of the layered structure measured in three orthogonal directions showed that the ferromanganese nodules grew equally in all directions regardless of shape and size. Based on differences in CT numbers, a layered structure was subdivided into sublayers I, II, III, and IV, which corresponded to petrological features. The nodules were then classified as Types I, II, III, and IV according to whether they had sublayers I, I and II, I–III, or I–IV, respectively. Correlations between the total thickness of the layers and the number of sublayers indicated that both represented the relative age of the nodules. Nodules with all these types were recovered from most of the sampling sites, and histograms of the total layer thickness at each dive site showed several peaks. These findings indicated that the initiation of nodule growth was intermittent, rather than simultaneous. Three distinct thickness peaks were found at many sites throughout the study area, suggesting that at least three nodule initiation events covering hundreds of kilometers initiated the growth of ferromanganese nodules. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferromanganese nodule; X-ray computed tomography; Minamitorishima Island ferromanganese nodule; X-ray computed tomography; Minamitorishima Island
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakamura, K.; Terauchi, D.; Shimomura, R.; Machida, S.; Yasukawa, K.; Fujinaga, K.; Kato, Y. Three-Dimensional Structural Analysis of Ferromanganese Nodules from the Western North Pacific Ocean Using X-ray Computed Tomography. Minerals 2021, 11, 1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101100

AMA Style

Nakamura K, Terauchi D, Shimomura R, Machida S, Yasukawa K, Fujinaga K, Kato Y. Three-Dimensional Structural Analysis of Ferromanganese Nodules from the Western North Pacific Ocean Using X-ray Computed Tomography. Minerals. 2021; 11(10):1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101100

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakamura, Kentaro, Daiki Terauchi, Ryo Shimomura, Shiki Machida, Kazutaka Yasukawa, Koichiro Fujinaga, and Yasuhiro Kato. 2021. "Three-Dimensional Structural Analysis of Ferromanganese Nodules from the Western North Pacific Ocean Using X-ray Computed Tomography" Minerals 11, no. 10: 1100. https://doi.org/10.3390/min11101100

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