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Article

Strength, Stiffness, and Microstructure of Wood-Ash Stabilized Marine Clay

1
Civil Engineering Program, Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Kalkanli, Guzelyurt, North Cyprus, Mersin TR-10, Turkey
2
Civil Engineering, European University of Lefke, Northern Cyprus TR-10, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(9), 796; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090796
Received: 17 July 2020 / Revised: 6 September 2020 / Accepted: 7 September 2020 / Published: 9 September 2020
The world’s population is growing at a rapid pace, thus increasing the need for shelter, which, because of increased carbon emissions, is making our planet less habitable. Thus, supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) are used to reduce the embodied carbon emissions in the building sector. Wood-ash, as a replacement for cement in ground improvement, seems to be a promising material. In this study, we considered the strength, stiffness, and microstructural behavior of marine deposited clays of Cyprus treated with cement and wood-ash as a cement replacement. Since clay is abundant in nature, it could help stabilize waste to improve the mechanical behavior of produced composites. Portland cement (7%, 10%, and 13%) was replaced with various amount of wood-ash (5% and 10%) with two different dry densities (1400 and 1600 kg/m3) and three distinct curing periods (7, 28, and 60 days). Unconfined compressive strength (UCS), direct shear, porosity and pulse velocity tests were performed. Additionally, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX) were performed for microstructural evaluation of clay–wood-ash–cement mixtures. The results revealed that the replacement of cement with 5% of wood-ash yielded superior performance. The microstructure investigation of wood-ash–cement–clay blends further showed the formation of a densified matrix with stable bonds. Furthermore, the porosity and strength properties (unconfined compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, cohesion (C) and friction angle (ϕ)) of blends have unique relationships with porosity and binder contents, which were further confirmed by other supplementary materials and soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: strength; stiffness; clay; stabilization; microstructure; wood-ash; waste strength; stiffness; clay; stabilization; microstructure; wood-ash; waste
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    Link: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3949710
    Description: Figure S1 Compaction curve of the clay used with the two chosen densities. Figure S2: EDX analysis: Resulting spectrum and tabulated results of marine deposited clay. Figure S3: EDX analysis: Resulting spectrum and tabulated results of Wood-ash.
MDPI and ACS Style

Ekinci, A.; Hanafi, M.; Aydin, E. Strength, Stiffness, and Microstructure of Wood-Ash Stabilized Marine Clay. Minerals 2020, 10, 796. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090796

AMA Style

Ekinci A, Hanafi M, Aydin E. Strength, Stiffness, and Microstructure of Wood-Ash Stabilized Marine Clay. Minerals. 2020; 10(9):796. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090796

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ekinci, Abdullah, Mohammad Hanafi, and Ertug Aydin. 2020. "Strength, Stiffness, and Microstructure of Wood-Ash Stabilized Marine Clay" Minerals 10, no. 9: 796. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10090796

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