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Ore Geology, Fluid Inclusions, and (H-O-S-Pb) Isotope Geochemistry of the Sediment-Hosted Antimony Mineralization, Lyhamyar Sb Deposit, Southern Shan Plateau, Eastern Myanmar: Implications for Ore Genesis

1
Faculty of Earth Resources, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
2
Department of Geology, Hpa-an University, Hpa-an 13011, Myanmar
3
Institute of Geological Survey, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China
4
CODES Centre of Ore Deposits and Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 126, Hobart, TAS 7001, Australia
5
Department of Geology, University of Yangon, Yangon, Kamayut 11041, Myanmar
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(4), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10040296 (registering DOI)
Received: 17 December 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magmatic–Hydrothermal Alteration and Mineralizing Processes)
The Lyhamyar deposit is a large Sb deposit in the Southern Shan Plateau, Eastern Myanmar. The deposit is located in the Early Silurian Linwe Formation, occurring as syntectonic quartz-stibnite veins. The ore body forms an irregular staircase shape, probably related to steep faulting. Based on the mineral assemblages and cross-cutting relationships, the deposit shows two mineralization stages: (1) the pre-ore sedimentary and diagenetic stage, and (2) the main-ore hydrothermal ore-forming stage (including stages I, II, and III), i.e., (i) early-ore stage (stage I) Quartz-Stibnite, (ii) late-ore stage (stage II) Quartz-calcite-Stibnite ± Pyrite, and (iii) post-ore stage (stage III) carbonate. The ore-forming fluid homogenization temperatures from the study of primary fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite indicate that the ore-forming fluid was of a low temperature (143.8–260.4 °C) and moderate to high-salinity (2.9–20.9 wt. % NaCl equivalent). Hydrogen and oxygen isotopes suggest that the ore-forming fluids of the Lyhamyar deposit were derived from circulating meteoric water mixed with magmatic fluids that underwent isotopic exchange with the surrounding rocks. Sulfur in Lyhamyar was dominated by thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) with dominant magmatic source sulfur. The lead isotope compositions of the stibnite indicate that the lead from the ore-forming metals was from the upper crustal lead reservoir and orogenic lead reservoir. On the basis of the integrated geological setting, ore geology, fluid inclusions, (H-O-S-Pb) isotope data, and previous literature, we propose a new ore-deposit model for the Lyhamyar Sb deposit: It was involved in an early deposition of pyrite in sedimentary and diagenetic stages and later Sb mineralization by mixing of circulating meteoric water with ascending magmatic fluids during the hydrothermal mineralization stage.
Keywords: fluid inclusions; (H-O-S-Pb) isotopes; Lyhamyar Sb deposit; Southern Shan Plateau; Eastern Myanmar fluid inclusions; (H-O-S-Pb) isotopes; Lyhamyar Sb deposit; Southern Shan Plateau; Eastern Myanmar
MDPI and ACS Style

Oo, A.M.; Xinbiao, L.; Zaw, K.; Htay, T.; Binke, S.; Adam, M.M.A. Ore Geology, Fluid Inclusions, and (H-O-S-Pb) Isotope Geochemistry of the Sediment-Hosted Antimony Mineralization, Lyhamyar Sb Deposit, Southern Shan Plateau, Eastern Myanmar: Implications for Ore Genesis. Minerals 2020, 10, 296.

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