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Article

Submarine Hydrothermal Discharge and Fluxes of Dissolved Fe and Mn, and He Isotopes at Brothers Volcano Based on Radium Isotopes

1
Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment (ICBM), Carl von Ossietzky University Oldenburg, 26111 Oldenburg, Germany
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Department of Physics & Earth Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen, 28759 Bremen, Germany
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Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM), University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
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Department of Ocean Systems, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research and Utrecht University, 1790 AB Den Burg, The Netherlands
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Marine Environmental Studies Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency—Nuclear Applications, 98000 Monaco, Monaco
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Department of Chemistry, University of Otago, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
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Department of Geosciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
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Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Minerals 2020, 10(11), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/min10110969
Received: 21 September 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 25 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
Hydrothermal venting is an important transfer process of energy and elements between the Earth’s solid material and the oceans. Compared to mid-ocean-ridge hydrothermal vent fields, those at intra-oceanic island arcs are typically in shallower water depth and have a more variable geochemical fluid composition. Biologically essential trace elements (such as Fe and Mn) are generally elevated in fluids of both deep and shallow hydrothermal vent fields, while vents at shallower water depth influence the photic zone more directly and thus are potentially more relevant for marine primary productivity. However, fluid flux estimations of island arc hydrothermal systems into the surrounding water column are scarce. This study (I) presents a method based on short-lived radium isotopes to estimate submarine hydrothermal discharge (SHD), (II) applies this method at Brothers volcano in the southern Kermadec arc, located northeast of New Zealand, and (III) gives dissolved Fe, Mn and He isotope flux estimates for the Earth´s longest intra-oceanic island arc, the Kermadec arc. The comparison between measured inert He isotope concentrations in the plume with calculated concentrations based on Ra isotopes matched reasonably well, which supports the use of a Ra-based discharge model. Overall, this study represents a novel approach to assess fluid and thus trace element fluxes from one hydrothermal vent field, which can be applied in future studies on various hydrothermal systems to improve geochemical models of element cycling in the ocean. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrothermal flux; radium isotopes; Kermadec island arc; helium; iron flux; manganese flux; 224Ra; 223Ra hydrothermal flux; radium isotopes; Kermadec island arc; helium; iron flux; manganese flux; 224Ra; 223Ra
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MDPI and ACS Style

Neuholz, R.; Kleint, C.; Schnetger, B.; Koschinsky, A.; Laan, P.; Middag, R.; Sander, S.; Thal, J.; Türke, A.; Walter, M.; Zitoun, R.; Brumsack, H.-J. Submarine Hydrothermal Discharge and Fluxes of Dissolved Fe and Mn, and He Isotopes at Brothers Volcano Based on Radium Isotopes. Minerals 2020, 10, 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10110969

AMA Style

Neuholz R, Kleint C, Schnetger B, Koschinsky A, Laan P, Middag R, Sander S, Thal J, Türke A, Walter M, Zitoun R, Brumsack H-J. Submarine Hydrothermal Discharge and Fluxes of Dissolved Fe and Mn, and He Isotopes at Brothers Volcano Based on Radium Isotopes. Minerals. 2020; 10(11):969. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10110969

Chicago/Turabian Style

Neuholz, René, Charlotte Kleint, Bernhard Schnetger, Andrea Koschinsky, Patrick Laan, Rob Middag, Sylvia Sander, Janis Thal, Andreas Türke, Maren Walter, Rebecca Zitoun, and Hans-Jürgen Brumsack. 2020. "Submarine Hydrothermal Discharge and Fluxes of Dissolved Fe and Mn, and He Isotopes at Brothers Volcano Based on Radium Isotopes" Minerals 10, no. 11: 969. https://doi.org/10.3390/min10110969

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