Next Article in Journal
Solvable Three-Dimensional Product-Type System of Difference Equations with Multipliers
Next Article in Special Issue
Chiral Separation in Preparative Scale: A Brief Overview of Membranes as Tools for Enantiomeric Separation
Previous Article in Journal
Planning of Knotting Based on Manipulation Skills with Consideration of Robot Mechanism/Motion and Its Realization by a Robot Hand System
Previous Article in Special Issue
Chiral Stationary Phases for Liquid Chromatography Based on Chitin- and Chitosan-Derived Marine Polysaccharides
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Symmetry 2017, 9(9), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9090196

Chiral Analysis of Pesticides and Drugs of Environmental Concern: Biodegradation and Enantiomeric Fraction

1
CESPU, Instituto de Investigação e Formação Avançada em Ciências e Tecnologias da Saúde, Rua Central de Gandra, 1317, 4585-116 Gandra PRD, Portugal
2
Universidade Católica Portuguesa, CBQF—Centro de Biotecnologia e Química Fina—Laboratório Associado, Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Rua Arquiteto Lobão Vital, apartado 2511, 4202-401 Porto, Portugal
3
Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering - Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials (LSRE-LCM), Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
4
Laboratório de Química Orgânica e Farmacêutica, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
5
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Universidade do Porto, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 August 2017 / Revised: 9 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 16 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chiral Separations)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1530 KB, uploaded 19 September 2017]   |  

Abstract

The importance of stereochemistry for medicinal chemistry and pharmacology is well recognized and the dissimilar behavior of enantiomers is fully documented. Regarding the environment, the significance is equivalent since enantiomers of chiral organic pollutants can also differ in biodegradation processes and fate, as well as in ecotoxicity. This review comprises designed biodegradation studies of several chiral drugs and pesticides followed by enantioselective analytical methodologies to accurately measure the enantiomeric fraction (EF). The enantioselective monitoring of microcosms and laboratory-scale experiments with different environmental matrices is herein reported. Thus, this review focuses on the importance of evaluating the EF variation during biodegradation studies of chiral pharmaceuticals, drugs of abuse, and agrochemicals and has implications for the understanding of the environmental fate of chiral pollutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: enantiomeric fraction (EF); enantioselectivity; chiral analysis; biodegradation; pesticides; pharmaceuticals enantiomeric fraction (EF); enantioselectivity; chiral analysis; biodegradation; pesticides; pharmaceuticals
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Maia, A.S.; Ribeiro, A.R.; Castro, P.M.L.; Tiritan, M.E. Chiral Analysis of Pesticides and Drugs of Environmental Concern: Biodegradation and Enantiomeric Fraction. Symmetry 2017, 9, 196.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top