# Performance Analysis of MIMO System with Single RF Link Based on Switched Parasitic Antenna

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

_{0}norm in non-cooperative electromagnetic case is proposed. In addition, some researchers have implemented space coding and time coding using spatial modulation [20] or the beamforming algorithm [21], which can be implemented in the RF domain and can effectively reduce the complexity of the system.

## 2. Theory of MIMO System

#### 2.1. Single Link MIMO System

_{1}and b

_{2}. It will change the current direction of the antenna structure and form multiple directional patterns. The transmitted signal of the transmitting antenna arrives at the receiving end of the system after mixing the Rayleigh channel with additive white Gauss noise. The task of the receiver is to recover two digital signals as quickly and accurately as possible. In the two branches of the antenna, the RF module is the same as the demodulation module, but the signal recovery module will process the two signals differently. The performance of the receiver will be measured by the accuracy of the recovered binary signal. The method is to measure the bit error rate by comparing the recovered bits with the input symbols at the transmitter.

_{1}after BPSK modulation is denoted as S

_{1}, then the antenna radiation patterns in the far field can be expressed as Equation (7) or Equation (8):

_{2}is a group of complex numbers which are uniformly distributed on the unit circle.

_{1}and b

_{2}is shown in Table 1. In fact, s

_{1}and s

_{2}are the modulated values of b

_{1}and b

_{2}, respectively. It can be concluded that S is exactly equal to the XOR results of b

_{1}and b

_{2}, indicating that the two binary signal b

_{1}and b

_{2}XOR results can form two states, and each state will correspond to far field radiation map of a switch parasitic antenna.

#### 2.2. Channel Design

#### 2.3. Receiver Design

**X**,

**Z**and

**W**are random variables, and

**Y**is a function of the three random variables. Based on

**Y**, the random variable ${\widehat{x}}_{i}$ should make sure that the average distance between the random variables and the real ${x}_{i}$ long-term statistics have the minimum average error. That is to say, in the moment of observed ${\mathit{Y}}_{\mathbf{1}}$, find a ${\widehat{x}}_{i}$ to calculate the distance observed between ${x}_{i}$ at moment one. Then, in the moment of observed ${\mathit{Y}}_{\mathbf{2}}$, find a ${\widehat{x}}_{i}$ to calculate the distance observed between ${x}_{i}$ at moment two. By this way, the observed sequence ${\widehat{x}}_{i}$ will have the smallest average distance with the real-sent sequence ${x}_{i}$. A simpler and commonly used method is to use the linear representation of the components ${y}_{i}$ of

**Y**, and the ${x}_{i}$ will have the following format:

## 3. Modeling of MIMO System in SystemVue

#### 3.1. Transmitter Modeling

#### 3.2. Receiver Modeling

#### 3.3. Flow of the Simulation

- (1)
- The single link can realize the modulation and demodulation process, which is not related to the RF link, channel or noise. The first signal by IQ modulation in transmitter directly passed the SPDT switch. In the ideal state, if the measured bit error rate is 0, the demodulated signal constellation distribution will be concentrated in [−1,0] and [1,0], which means the correctness of the system design.
- (2)
- Design the transmitter and the receiver separately to get the radio link budget. Then measure the RF link power and the input and output spectrum distribution in all nodes to ensure the RF link design is correct. It can be added as a separate module to the MIMO system for further investigation.
- (3)
- The transmitting end and the receiving end RF link design need to be incorporated into the system in (1), which will introduce the synchronization module. The feedback time measured by the CorrDelay component gives the BER of the system in the software.
- (4)
- On the basis of (3), the channel and Gauss white noise are added to construct the single RF link 2 × 2 MIMO system based on a switched parasitic antenna. Using the parameter scanning function in SystemVue, we can measure the change of system BER with the signal to noise ratio and the channel capacity, which includes the characteristics of single pole double throw switches, switching speed, isolation and insertion loss, system delay, and different encoding modes at the receiver.

## 4. Results

#### 4.1. Influence of the Switch

^{−2}or lower, it is usually possible to determine the communication system ability to accurately transmit the information.

#### 4.2. Spectrum Characteristics

#### 4.3. Influence of Receiver Coding Mode

## 5. Conclusions

^{−4}using the algorithm mentioned above. This paper analyzes the simulation platform of single RF link MIMO system based on switched parasitic antenna and makes up for the disadvantages of high cost in experimental verification and greatly improves the efficiency of MIMO system, thus providing prospects for future research on the single RF link MIMO system.

## Acknowledgments

## Author Contributions

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 5.**The input and output spectrum of the transmitter link chain. (

**a**) The input spectrum; (

**b**) The output spectrum.

**Figure 7.**The input and output spectrum of the receiver link chain. (

**a**) The input spectrum; (

**b**) The output spectrum.

**Figure 8.**Influence of SPDT characteristics on system error rate. (

**a**) Influence of the switch loss; (

**b**) Influence of the switch isolation.

**Figure 11.**Two input signals for spectrum broadening verification. (

**a**) Fixed form symbol; (

**b**) Pseudo random code.

[b_{1},b_{2}]^{T} | [s_{1},s_{2}]^{T} | S |
---|---|---|

[1,1]^{T} | [1,1]^{T} | 2 |

[1,0]^{T} | [1,−1]^{T} | 1 |

[0,1]^{T} | [−1,1]^{T} | 1 |

[0,0]^{T} | [−1,−1]^{T} | 2 |

Parameter | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|

Attenuator 1 Loss | 2 | dB |

Band-pass Filter | 3 | order |

Passband Range | 490–510 | MHz |

Filter Insertion Loss | 8 | dB |

Attenuator 2 Loss | 3 | dB |

Amplifier 1 Gain | 12 | dB |

Local Oscillator Power | −3 | dBm |

Resonant Frequency | 2180 | MHz |

Amplifier 2 Gain | 20 | dB |

Cut-off frequency | 2200 | MHz |

Amplifier 3 Gain | 30 | dB |

Isolator Loss | 0.5 | dB |

Parameter | Value | Unit |
---|---|---|

Elliptic Band-pass Filter | 2380–2420 | MHz |

Amplifier 1 Gain | 60 | dB |

Isolator Isolation | 30 | dB |

Local Oscillator Power | 2 | dBm |

Resonant Frequency | 2620 | MHz |

Linear Attenuator | 2 | dB |

Chebyshev Bandpass Filter | 210–230 | MHz |

Filter Cut-off Frequency | 2700 | MHz |

Amplifier 2 Gain | 33 | dB |

Amplifier 3 Gain | 30 | dB |

Controllable Attenuator | 3 | dB |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yu, H.; Yang, G.; Meng, F.; Li, Y.
Performance Analysis of MIMO System with Single RF Link Based on Switched Parasitic Antenna. *Symmetry* **2017**, *9*, 304.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9120304

**AMA Style**

Yu H, Yang G, Meng F, Li Y.
Performance Analysis of MIMO System with Single RF Link Based on Switched Parasitic Antenna. *Symmetry*. 2017; 9(12):304.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9120304

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yu, He, Guohui Yang, Fanyi Meng, and Yingsong Li.
2017. "Performance Analysis of MIMO System with Single RF Link Based on Switched Parasitic Antenna" *Symmetry* 9, no. 12: 304.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym9120304