# Laboratory Investigation of Hydraulic Parameters on Inclined Drop Equipped with Fishway Elements

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{3}for the large anadromous salmon species and 150 W/m

^{3}for smaller species, including trout. Wu, Rajaratnam, and Katopodis [18] numerically investigated the mean turbulence depth and symmetry boundary condition to simulate flow in vertical fishway paths. The results showed that the importance of the turbulence model in numerical simulation could be considered a valuable tool for practical design purposes. Yagci [21] examined the hydraulic aspects of pool-weir fishways as the ecologically friendly water structure. Results showed that turbulence intensity is also effective and must be specified. Flow velocity and depth affect the fish’s swimming capability. Flow patterns and turbulence in fishways provide suitable swimming conditions for some specific fish species.

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Experimentally Equipment

#### 2.2. Dimensional Analysis

_{u}is upstream flow depth, y

_{c}is critical depth, y

_{d}is downstream flow depth, μ is dynamic viscosity, ρ is density, g is gravity acceleration, φ is the angle of position of fishway elements, a and b are the length and height of the opening of the elements, respectively, x is the distance of the elements from each other, L

_{air}is aeration length, L

_{j}is the length of a hydraulic jump, E

_{u}and E

_{d}are upstream and downstream specific energy, respectively.

#### 2.3. Specific Energy Equations and Evaluation Criteria

^{2}), root mean square error (RMSE), relative error (E

_{relative error}), and Kling–Gupta statistic (KGE) were used to evaluate the quality of equations.

_{Exp}is laboratory data, M

_{Cal}is calculated data from extractive equations, N is the number of data, ${\sigma}_{{M}_{Exp}}$ and ${\sigma}_{{M}_{Cal}}$ are the sum of laboratory and computational data, $\overline{{M}_{Exp}}$ and $\overline{{M}_{Cal}}$ are the average of laboratory and computational data, respectively. It should be noted that the best solution is when the RMSE coefficient is zero, and the R

^{2}coefficient is one [36]. The quality range of the KGE coefficient is as follows.

#### 2.4. Study’s Limitations

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Experimentally Observations

#### 3.2. Energy Dissipation

#### 3.3. Relative Downstream Depth

#### 3.4. Relative Aeration Length

#### 3.5. Relative Length of Hydraulic Jump and Downstream Froude Number

#### 3.6. Experimental Equations

^{2}, and KGE criteria, are detailed in Table 3.

## 4. Conclusions

- By increasing the relative critical depth parameter, the relative energy dissipation decreases. The simple inclined drop has the lowest energy dissipation, and the M7 model has the highest energy dissipation. Adding fishway elements to a simple inclined drop increases the flow energy dissipation by an average of 88%, which is a significant value.
- Model M2 has the maximum length of flow aeration. By reducing the angle of the element, the amount of air entering the water also decreases. Increasing the amount of aeration and energy dissipation of the flow reduces the outlet flow downstream. It prevents scouring and foaming problems of the channel. In addition to the positive economic impact, increasing aeration is of particular importance on aquatic animals.
- For all models, the relative depth of the downstream is directly related to the relative critical depth. The use of fishway elements has significantly increased the downstream depth. The M2 model has the highest relative depth of the downstream overall.
- The use of fishway elements on the inclined drop structure causes more energy to be lost from the flow and a hydraulic jump to occur inside the stilling basins. On the other hand, these elements significantly reduce the Froude number for all relative critical depths, which is an essential point in the design of inclined drops.
- The advantages of using fishway elements in comparison with other dissipating structures, in addition to environmental considerations, are also economic considerations. Some dissipators, such as screens and stilling basins, are expensive costs to build. However, in addition to environmental considerations, fishway structures have a meager construction cost. They have also helped a lot in energy dissipation.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**General schematic and actual image of laboratory flume and prototype models tested in this study.

**Figure 2.**Flow on an inclined drop equipped with fishway elements: (

**a**) Smooth drop (Model M1); (

**b**) Model M2; (

**c**) Model M3 (

**d**) Model M4; (

**e**) Model M5; (

**f**) Model M6; (

**g**) Model M7.

**Figure 3.**Relative energy dissipation changes versus relative critical depth: (

**a**) fishway elements without holes; (

**b**) fishway elements with holes; (

**c**) compare models with each other.

**Figure 4.**Relative downstream depth changes versus relative critical depth: (

**a**) fishway elements without holes; (

**b**) fishway elements with holes; (

**c**) compare models with each other.

**Figure 8.**Compare experimental data with calculated data from Equations (13) and (14): (

**a**) relative downstream depth for Equation (13); (

**b**) relative energy dissipation for Equation (13); (

**c**) relative downstream depth for Equation (14); (

**d**) relative energy dissipation for Equation (14).

Equipment and Materials | Specification | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Dimensions (m) (L × W × H) | Materials | Measurement Accuracy | Other Specification | |

Flume | 5.0 × 0.3 × 0.45 | Wall and bed: Plexiglass | ---- | ---- |

Measuring tools | ||||

Pump’ | 2 items | Metal | ±4% | Capacity: 150~450 L/min |

Flowmeter | 2 items | Rotameter | ±2% | ---- |

Point gage | ---- | Metal | ±1 mm | Measuring depths |

Simple inclined drop physical model | 1.2 × 0.3 × 0.15 | 8 mm glass | ---- | Drop angle with the horizon: 26.56° |

Fishway elements physical models | 0.15 × 0.06 × 0.1 | 6 mm glass with and without holes | ---- | The angle of placement of fishway elements: 45°, 60°, and 90° Opening of the perforated element: 5 × 5 cm |

Models No. | Type of Drop | Type of Fishway Elements | Degree of Inclined Drop | Degree of Fishways | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Inclined | No Holes | With Holes | |||

M1 | √ | ---- | ---- | 26.56° | Simple drop |

M2 | √ | √ | 90° | ||

M3 | √ | √ | 60° | ||

M4 | √ | √ | 45° | ||

M5 | √ | √ | 90° | ||

M6 | √ | √ | 60° | ||

M7 | √ | √ | 45° |

Dependent Parameters | Number of Equations | Constant Parameters | Criteria Evaluations | Maximum Relative Error | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Equation (13) | Equation (14) | a | b | c | d | RMSE | R^{2} | KGE | ||

$\frac{{y}_{d}}{\Delta Z}$ | √ | 7.5706 | 1.9685 | 0.2785 | --- | 0.096 | 0.984 | 0.988 | ±8.64 | |

$\frac{\Delta E}{{E}_{0}}$ | √ | 0.1898 | −0.8055 | −0.0801 | --- | 0.047 | 0.945 | 0.961 | ±9.84 | |

$\frac{{y}_{d}}{\Delta Z}$ | √ | 1.6259 | 0.9262 | 0.000706 | 1.0 | 0.0168 | 0.969 | 0.977 | ±8.64 | |

$\frac{\Delta E}{{E}_{0}}$ | √ | 0.4037 | −0.3339 | −0.0135 | 1.0 | 0.0122 | 0.947 | 0.985 | ±7.56 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Daneshfaraz, R.; Aminvash, E.; Bagherzadeh, M.; Ghaderi, A.; Kuriqi, A.; Najibi, A.; Ricardo, A.M.
Laboratory Investigation of Hydraulic Parameters on Inclined Drop Equipped with Fishway Elements. *Symmetry* **2021**, *13*, 1643.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13091643

**AMA Style**

Daneshfaraz R, Aminvash E, Bagherzadeh M, Ghaderi A, Kuriqi A, Najibi A, Ricardo AM.
Laboratory Investigation of Hydraulic Parameters on Inclined Drop Equipped with Fishway Elements. *Symmetry*. 2021; 13(9):1643.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13091643

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Daneshfaraz, Rasoul, Ehsan Aminvash, Mohammad Bagherzadeh, Amir Ghaderi, Alban Kuriqi, Amir Najibi, and Ana M. Ricardo.
2021. "Laboratory Investigation of Hydraulic Parameters on Inclined Drop Equipped with Fishway Elements" *Symmetry* 13, no. 9: 1643.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13091643