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Communication

Levels of Agreement for the Direction of Inter-Limb Asymmetry during Four Simple Change-of-Direction Tests in Young Male Handball Players: A Pilot Study

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Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, Polje 42, 6310 Izola, Slovenia
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Andrej Marušič Institute, University of Primorska, Muzejski Trg 2, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
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London Sport Institute, Middlesex University, Greenlands Lane, Allianz Park, London NW4 4BT, UK
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Human Health Department, InnoRenew CoE, Livade 6, 6310 Izola, Slovenia
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S2P, Science to Practice, Ltd., Laboratory for Motor Control and Motor Behavior, Tehnološki Park 19, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Sergei D. Odintsov, Sebastian Ocklenburg and John H. Graham
Symmetry 2021, 13(10), 1940; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13101940
Received: 26 August 2021 / Revised: 24 September 2021 / Accepted: 11 October 2021 / Published: 15 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Medicine and Biomechanics)
The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of change-of-direction (CoD) angle (90° vs. 180°) and the inclusion of acceleration approach on total task time, CoD deficit, and agreement regarding inter-limb asymmetry direction across CoD tasks. The sample included 13 young male handball players (age: 22.4 ± 3.2 years). The CoD tasks were performed over a 10 m distance with 90° and 180° turns. Both CoD tasks were performed under two conditions: (1) from the standing start and, (2) with a 10 m prior acceleration approach. Linear sprint times over a 10 m distance were also recorded for the purpose of determining the CoD deficit. The differences between the outcomes of different test variants were assessed with pairwise t-tests and associated Cohen’s d effect size. The agreement in terms of inter-limb asymmetry direction was assessed descriptively, using percentage of agreement. Results showed that the inclusion of the 10 m approach reduced the total task time (mean differences ranging between 0.26 and 0.35 s; d = 2.27–4.02; p < 0.002). The differences between 90° and 180° turn times were statistically significant under both conditions: (a) without approach (0.44–0.48 s; d = 4.72–4.84; all p < 0.001), and (b) with approach (0.50–0.54 s; d = 4.41–5.03; p < 0.001). The agreement regarding inter-limb asymmetry direction among the tasks was 30.7–61.5%. The differences between the tasks could be explained by the angle–velocity trade-off. The results of this study imply that the CoD tasks should not be used interchangeably when assessing inter-limb asymmetries. View Full-Text
Keywords: agility; change of direction deficit; symmetry; angle; velocity agility; change of direction deficit; symmetry; angle; velocity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kozinc, Ž.; Bishop, C.; Pleša, J.; Šarabon, N. Levels of Agreement for the Direction of Inter-Limb Asymmetry during Four Simple Change-of-Direction Tests in Young Male Handball Players: A Pilot Study. Symmetry 2021, 13, 1940. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13101940

AMA Style

Kozinc Ž, Bishop C, Pleša J, Šarabon N. Levels of Agreement for the Direction of Inter-Limb Asymmetry during Four Simple Change-of-Direction Tests in Young Male Handball Players: A Pilot Study. Symmetry. 2021; 13(10):1940. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13101940

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kozinc, Žiga, Chris Bishop, Jernej Pleša, and Nejc Šarabon. 2021. "Levels of Agreement for the Direction of Inter-Limb Asymmetry during Four Simple Change-of-Direction Tests in Young Male Handball Players: A Pilot Study" Symmetry 13, no. 10: 1940. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym13101940

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