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Interlimb Asymmetries and Ipsilateral Associations of Plantar Flexors and Knee Extensors Rate-of-Force Development Scaling Factor

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Primorska, 6310 Izola, Slovenia
InnoRenew CoE, Livade 6, 6310 Izola, Slovenia
Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
The Research Centre, Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Belgrade, 11030 Belgrade, Serbia
Andrej Marušič Institute, University of Primorska, 6000 Koper, Slovenia
S2P Science to Practice, Laboratory for Motor Control and Motor Behaviour, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(9), 1522;
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 7 September 2020 / Accepted: 9 September 2020 / Published: 16 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Biomechanics)
Rate of force/torque development scaling factor (RFD-SF/RTD-SF) was recently introduced as a tool to quantify the neuromuscular quickness, and it could have potential for interlimb asymmetry identification. Moreover, positive relationships in RFD-SF ability among different muscle groups were shown, but not in the lower extremity. The first aim of our study was to use RTD-SF for interlimb asymmetry identification. The second aim was to determine associations between plantar flexors (PF) and knee extensors (KE). Forty young healthy athletes (14.8 ± 1.2 years) performed explosive isometric contractions to a span of torque levels for PF and KE. From rapid isometric contractions, the RTD-SF and linearity (r2) of the regression line were calculated. Using RTD-SF we identified 10% (PF) and 15% (KE) of subjects with contralateral asymmetries (>15% criterion). The results revealed significant positive moderate correlation in RTD-SF between PF and KE (r = 0.401, p < 0.05). We supported that RTD-SF can be a useful tool for interlimb asymmetry identification. Future research about observed asymmetry in rapid submaximal contractions deserves more attention, as most of the functional sport specific activities put high demands on rapid force production. Our study as first confirmed positive associations in RTD-SF ability between muscle groups in lower limbs. View Full-Text
Keywords: asymmetry; knee; angle; young athletes asymmetry; knee; angle; young athletes
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Smajla, D.; Knezevic, O.M.; Mirkov, D.M.; Šarabon, N. Interlimb Asymmetries and Ipsilateral Associations of Plantar Flexors and Knee Extensors Rate-of-Force Development Scaling Factor. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1522.

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