# Influence of Superheated Vapour in Organic Rankine Cycles with Working Fluid R123 Utilizing Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources

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## Abstract

**:**

^{2}·K, respectively. In conclusion, ORC system efficiency can be triggered by various parameters, including the temperature on the exit side of the evaporator. The superheated vapour of R123 working fluid to higher temperatures has caused a decrease in ORC system efficiency due to the decrease in heat transfer inlets, although theoretically, the work total increased. Further investigation has found that the magnitude of the mass flow rate affects the behaviour of the components of the ORC system.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Test Bench Description of ORC System

#### 2.1. Heating Loop

#### 2.2. Binary Loop

^{2}(data sheets information). On the surface of the evaporator, glass wool insulation was installed to prevent heat loss. The reason for selecting PHE was to develop an ORC system with compact binary cycle devices and space saving consideration.

#### 2.3. Cooling Loop

#### 2.4. Measurement Devices

## 3. Thermodynamic Analysis Methods

_{evap}), LMTD (ΔT

_{evap}), and heat transfer coefficient (U

_{evap}) could be expressed as follows:

_{t}) could be written:

_{is, exp}) could be expressed as follows:

## 4. Discussion

#### 4.1. Data for Thermodynamic Condition in Steady-State Operation

#### 4.2. Operation Characteristic of ORC System

^{2}K at superheated vapour 278 K to 228.73 W/m

^{2}K at superheated vapour 284 K and then, tends to slope of 232.54 W/m

^{2}K at superheated vapour 286 K. This is caused by the decreasing evaporator heat transfer rate, which is due to less power being captured for ensuring the decline mass flow rate, as shown in Figure 6. However, when an evaporator heat transfer coefficient is the highest grade, the irreversibility has the lowest grade, which means less wasted heat.

## 5. Conclusions

- The lowest superheated vapour of 278 K required the highest mass flow rate of 0.127 kg/s and vice versa, the highest superheated vapour of 286 K required the lowest mass flow rate of 0.112 kg/s. This was because in the lowest superheated vapour, the flow of working fluid must be accelerated in order to gain the expected evaporator heat transfer rate and vice versa.
- The pinch point and superheated vapour are always the opposite; the greater temperature of the superheated vapour would result in the lower temperature of the pinch point and vice versa. The lowest pinch point of 4.08 °C, at superheated vapour 286 K, meant temperature of the heat source or heat sink had a small difference, but did not show a large evaporator heat transfer rate (at 25.34 kJ/kg). This means that the magnitude of the evaporator heat transfer rate was influenced by mass flow rate, not the size of the pinch point.
- The biggest ORC efficiency of 8.6% and produced power generation of 1.37 kW occurred at superheated vapour of 278 K, with relation to an expander shaft power of 1.729 kW. The maximum ORC efficiency did not express the highest expander shaft power and power generation.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Nomenclature

ORC | Organic Rankine Cycle (–) |

PHE | Plate Heat Exchanger (–) |

T | Temperature (°C) |

P | Pressure (bar) |

W | work; power (kJ/s); (kW) |

h | Enthalpy (kJ/kg) |

$\dot{m}$ | mass flow rate (kg/s) |

Q | heat transfer (kJ/kg) |

U | heat transfer coefficient (W/m^{2} K) |

TH | temperature high (°C) |

A | heat transfer area (m^{2}) |

η | Efficiency (%) |

ΔT | LMTD; diff temp (°C) |

BWR | back work ratio (–) |

s | Isentropic (–) |

Subscript | |

p | pump |

1-4, i | state points |

evap | evaporator |

max | maximum |

min | minimum |

in | inlet |

out | outlet |

t | turbine/expander |

th | thermal |

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**Figure 6.**Effect of variation in degree of superheated vapour on mass flow rate and heat transfer inlet.

**Figure 7.**Effect of variation in degree of superheated vapour on pinch and heat transfer coefficient.

**Figure 8.**Effect of variation in degree of superheated vapour on expander work output and expander isentropic efficiency.

**Figure 9.**Effect of variation in degree of superheated vapour on expander shaft power and power generation.

**Figure 10.**Effect of variation in degree of superheated vapour on Back Work Ratio and ORC efficiency.

**Table 1.**Thermophysical properties of R123 (Surindra et al., 2019 [13]).

R123 or HCFC 123 | |
---|---|

Type | Dry |

Formula | CF_{2}CH_{2}CHF_{2} |

Molecular mass (g/mol) | 152.93 |

Freezing point (°C) | −107 |

Critical Temperature | 183.8 |

Critical pressure | 36.6 |

Ozon Depletion Potential (ODP) | 0.02 |

Global Warming Potential (GWP) | 77 |

Inflammability | non-flammable |

No | Year | Researcher | Country |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 2020 | Guo et al. [37] | China |

Sarmiento et al. [38] | Brazil | ||

2 | 2019 | Wu et al. [39] | China |

Bagherzadeh et al. [40] | Hungary | ||

3 | 2018 | Jiang et al. [41] | China |

Behzadi et al. [42] | Iran | ||

4 | 2017 | Bao et al. [43] | United Kingdom |

Jubori et al. [44] | United Kingdom | ||

5 | 2016 | Lei et al. [45] | China |

Shu et al. [46] | China |

No | Measuring Instrument | Type | Range | Device Uncertainty |
---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Pressure transmitter (Jetec Electronics Co., Ltd., Taichung, Taiwan) | JPT-131S | 0–30 bar | ±0.5% P.S |

2 | Temperature (Deange Industry Co., Ltd., New Taipei, Taiwan) | T-type | 0–623.15 °K | ±0.3 °C |

3 | Flowmeter (Great Plains Industries, Sydney, Australia) | GPI S050 | 1.9–37.9 L/min | ±0.3% L/min |

4 | Rotation meter (Uni-Trend Technology (Dongguan) Limited, Dongguan, China) | UT-372 | 10–99,999 rpm | ±0.3% rpm |

5 | Power meter (Arch Meter Corporation, Hsinchu, Taiwan) | PA310 | V (0–300 VAC), 1 (0–400 A) Hz (50/60 Hz), PF(−1–1) | ±0.5% |

7 | Pump isentropic efficiency | 4.5% | ||

8 | Pump mechanical efficiency | 5.0% | ||

9 | Evaporator heat transfer rate | 3.1% | ||

10 | Evaporator heat transfer coefficient | 7.8% | ||

11 | Expander shaft power | 6.0% | ||

12 | Electrical power | 0.5% | ||

13 | Expander isentropic efficiency | 4.7% | ||

14 | Condenser heat transfer coefficient | 6.4% | ||

15 | Tested thermal efficiency | 1.1% | ||

16 | System generating efficiency | 1.2% |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Prasetyo, T.; Surindra, M.D.; Caesarendra, W.; Taufik; Glowacz, A.; Irfan, M.; Glowacz, W.
Influence of Superheated Vapour in Organic Rankine Cycles with Working Fluid R123 Utilizing Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources. *Symmetry* **2020**, *12*, 1463.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091463

**AMA Style**

Prasetyo T, Surindra MD, Caesarendra W, Taufik, Glowacz A, Irfan M, Glowacz W.
Influence of Superheated Vapour in Organic Rankine Cycles with Working Fluid R123 Utilizing Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources. *Symmetry*. 2020; 12(9):1463.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091463

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Prasetyo, Totok, Mochamad Denny Surindra, Wahyu Caesarendra, Taufik, Adam Glowacz, Muhammad Irfan, and Witold Glowacz.
2020. "Influence of Superheated Vapour in Organic Rankine Cycles with Working Fluid R123 Utilizing Low-Temperature Geothermal Resources" *Symmetry* 12, no. 9: 1463.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12091463