# Route Configuration Method for Highway Passenger Hubs from the Perspective of Transportation Integration: A Case Study of Nanjing, China

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

^{2}, respectively; moreover, the highway passenger traffic volume for business purposes reached 13.012 billion, and the highway passenger traffic turnover was 885.708 billion person-kilometres [2]. As important node of the highway transportation network, highway passenger transport hubs, plays an important role in passenger travel organisation, transfer, transportation service, etc. Within the highway passenger transport hub, passenger transport lines are important components that run through the road passenger transport network, which acts as the link between the various elements [3].

## 2. Literature Review

## 3. Methodology

#### 3.1. Configuration Model of the Departure Site of Single-Station Hub Lines

#### 3.1.1. Configuration Process of the Departure Site of the Line

#### 3.1.2. Configuration Method of Single-Station Hub Line Departure Stations

**(1)****Determine the scope of hub’s services:**

**Step 1:**Calculate the initial value of the radius of service using Equation (1).

**Step 2:**Amend the mode of transport ratio using Equation (2).

**Step 3:**Calculate the radius kth amendment using Equation (3).

**Step 4:**Test the calculation precision. To this end, firstly set the value of $\mathsf{\epsilon}$: if $\left|{\mathrm{R}}_{\mathrm{k}}{-\mathrm{R}}_{\mathrm{k}-1}\right|\le \mathsf{\epsilon}$, ${\mathrm{R}}_{\mathrm{k}}$ is the service radius of the station; if $\left|{\mathrm{R}}_{\mathrm{k}}{-\mathrm{R}}_{\mathrm{k}-1}\right|\le \mathsf{\epsilon}$, return to step 2 and continue with the calculations until the accuracy criterion defined in this step is satisfied. The recommended value for $\mathsf{\epsilon}$ is 10 m.

**(2)****Determine the departure site of the single-station hub line:**

#### 3.2. Configuration Model of Multi-Station Hub Line Departure Stations

#### 3.2.1. Relative Generalised Travel Cost

#### 3.2.2. Distribution Model of Passenger Flow in Multi-Station Hub Lines

#### 3.3. Configuration Optimisation for Passenger Transport Hubs on Highways

## 4. Case Study

**(1)****Single-station hub line scheme:**

**(2)****Multiple-station hub line scheme:**

**(3)****Overall Optimisation of the Scheme for the Departure Station of the Passenger Transport Hub:**

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 6.**Traffic zone distribution in the highway passenger transport hub system of Nanjing, China.

High Passenger Flow Demand | Low Passenger Flow Demand | |
---|---|---|

Centralised demand distribution of passenger flow | Single-station hub line | Single-station hub line |

Scattered demand distribution of passenger flow | Multi-station hub line | Single-station hub line |

Traffic Zone | Passenger Hub | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

B_{1} | B_{2} | … | B_{n} | Sum | |

A_{1} | x_{11} | x_{12} | … | x_{1n} | a_{1} |

A_{2} | x_{21} | x_{22} | … | x_{2n} | a_{2} |

… | … | … | … | … | … |

A_{m} | x_{m1} | x_{m2} | … | x_{2n} | a_{m} |

Sum | b_{1} | b_{2} | … | b_{n} | - |

Station | Class | Design Daily Delivery (10,000) | Daily Shifts | Scope of the Service |
---|---|---|---|---|

S1 | First class | 3 | 1500 | 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 |

S2 | First class | 1 | 500 | 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 23, 26, 27, 30, 21, 37, 39 |

S3 | Second class | 0.5 | 300 | 1, 8, 9, 11, 22, 23, 24, 30, 31 |

S4 | Second class | 0.5 | 300 | 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 26, 29 |

S5 | First class | 3 | 1500 | 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 21, 22, 23, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40 |

S6 | First class | 1.5 | 750 | 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 31, 36, 37, 39 |

S7 | Second class | 1 | 300 | 2, 3, 5, 9 |

S8 | First class | 1 | 500 | 6, 10, 25, 26, 38 |

Lines | Sites | Scope of the Line Service |
---|---|---|

SL1, SL2, SL3 | S5 | 32, 33, 34, 35, 39, 40 |

SL4, SL5, SL6, SL7, SL8 | S1 | 36, 37, 38 |

SL9 | S3 | 1, 15, 16 |

SL10 | S2 | 21, 22, 24, 28, 29, 30, 31 |

SL11, SL12 | S6 | 18, 19, 20 |

SL13, SL14 | S8 | 25 |

SL15 | S7 | 14 |

Lines | Set of Initial Sites | Scope of the Service |
---|---|---|

ML1 | S1, S4, S5, S6, S7 | 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 17, 23, 26, 27 |

ML2 | S1, S4, S5, S6, S7, S8 | 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 23, 26, 27 |

ML3 | S1, S4, S5, S8 | 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 17, 23 |

ML4 | S1, S2, S5, S8 | 5, 7, 8, 12, 23, 26, 27 |

ML5 | S1, S2 | 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 |

Passenger Station | S1 | S4 | S5 | S6 | S7 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Zone | ||||||

R1 | 1.54 | 1.74 | 1.60 | 1.56 | 1.54 | |

R2 | 1.58 | 1.75 | 1.63 | 1.64 | 1.60 | |

R3 | 1.49 | 1.81 | 1.65 | 1.62 | 1.52 | |

R4 | 1.45 | 1.82 | 1.70 | 1.66 | 1.58 | |

R5 | 1.52 | 1.86 | 1.73 | 1.74 | 1.64 | |

R6 | 1.68 | 1.69 | 1.57 | 1.60 | 1.67 | |

R7 | 1.43 | 1.88 | 1.75 | 1.76 | 1.63 | |

R8 | 1.65 | 1.76 | 1.59 | 1.62 | 1.67 | |

R9 | 1.47 | 1.96 | 1.82 | 1.81 | 1.65 | |

R10 | 1.75 | 1.80 | 1.69 | 1.71 | 1.77 | |

R11 | 1.87 | 1.91 | 1.82 | 1.83 | 1.89 | |

S5 transfer | - | - | 1 | - | - | |

S1 transfer | 1 | - | - | - | - |

Passenger Station | S1 | S4 | S5 | S6 | S7 | ${\mathit{a}}_{\mathit{i}}$ | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Zone | |||||||

R1 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 206 | 206 | |

R2 | 256 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 256 | |

R3 | 235 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 235 | |

R4 | 65 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 65 | |

R5 | 57 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 57 | |

R6 | 0 | 0 | 107 | 0 | 0 | 107 | |

R7 | 92 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 92 | |

R8 | 0 | 0 | 122 | 0 | 0 | 122 | |

R9 | 298 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 298 | |

R10 | 0 | 0 | 145 | 0 | 0 | 145 | |

R11 | 0 | 0 | 200 | 0 | 0 | 200 | |

S5 transfer | 0 | 0 | 126 | 0 | 0 | 126 | |

S1 transfer | 189 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 | 189 | |

${b}_{j}$ | 1194 | 0 | 700 | 0 | 206 | 2100 |

**Table 8.**Initial results of the departure station configuration scheme of the multiple-station hub line.

Passenger Station | S1 | S2 | S3 | S4 | S5 | S6 | S7 | S8 | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Zones | |||||||||

2 | 433 | - | - | 0 | 1608 | 0 | 2774 | - | |

10 | 984 | - | - | 0 | 1711 | - | - | 1549 | |

9 | 890 | - | - | 0 | 1169 | - | - | 1772 | |

6 | 1037 | - | - | 0 | 226 | 906 | - | 1591 | |

11 | 230 | - | - | 0 | 1837 | 0 | - | 490 | |

7 | 117 | - | - | 0 | 1814 | 0 | - | 484 | |

26 | 212 | 1493 | - | - | 141 | - | - | 508 | |

4 | 1530 | - | - | 0 | 768 | 0 | 0 | - | |

8 | 563 | - | - | 0 | 730 | 0 | - | 740 | |

5 | 1136 | - | - | 0 | 666 | 0 | 196 | - | |

3 | 1318 | - | - | 0 | 662 | 0 | 0 | - | |

23 | 858 | 847 | 0 | - | 109 | - | - | - | |

12 | 156 | 0 | - | - | 1580 | 0 | - | - | |

27 | 153 | 0 | - | - | 1549 | 0 | - | - | |

17 | 685 | - | 485 | - | 88 | 77 | 0 | - | |

13 | 110 | - | - | 0 | 1117 | 0 | - | - | |

Sum | 10 520 | 2340 | 485 | 0 | 15 767 | 983 | 2971 | 7134 | |

Ratio | 26.2% | 5.8% | 1.2% | 0.0% | 39.2% | 2.4% | 7.4% | 17.7% |

**Note:**the grey shading indicates that the passenger volume of the site in the initial scheme was 0.

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Du, X.; Zhu, Z.; Chen, J.; Qi, C.; Guo, X.
Route Configuration Method for Highway Passenger Hubs from the Perspective of Transportation Integration: A Case Study of Nanjing, China. *Symmetry* **2020**, *12*, 1194.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071194

**AMA Style**

Du X, Zhu Z, Chen J, Qi C, Guo X.
Route Configuration Method for Highway Passenger Hubs from the Perspective of Transportation Integration: A Case Study of Nanjing, China. *Symmetry*. 2020; 12(7):1194.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071194

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Du, Xiaochuan, Zhenjun Zhu, Junlan Chen, Cong Qi, and Xiucheng Guo.
2020. "Route Configuration Method for Highway Passenger Hubs from the Perspective of Transportation Integration: A Case Study of Nanjing, China" *Symmetry* 12, no. 7: 1194.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12071194